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Main Battle Tank (MBT)

China | 1959

"The Type 59 was nothing more than a Chinese copy of the Soviet T-54 main battle tank."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/09/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The NORINCO-produced Type 59 Main Battle Tank (MBT) of China became a locally-produced variant of the original Soviet-era T-54A MBT. Externally it was more or less identical to the Soviet design though the inner workings were customized to fulfill local Chinese requirements. Many second-rate, budget-conscious armies of the world committed to the type for its time as a front-line weapon.

The Type 59 was fitted with a 100mm main gun with later models being witnessed carrying such implements as a laser rangefinder (mounted atop the gun). Both commander and loader were given cupola positions at the turret roof line with the loader being charged with operation of the 12.7mm Anti-Aircraft (AA) Heavy Machine Gun (HMG) mounted atop the turret. The commander managed a 7.62mm machine gun for local defense against infantry. Another 7.62mm machine gun was mounted coaxially and operated by the main gunner. The driver sat front-left and some ready-to-use ammunition was stored to his immediate right. A smoke-screen was produced by the vehicle by injecting raw diesel fuel into the exhaust - - a common trait of Soviet combat tanks of the period - thus eliminating the need for smoke grenade dischargers.

The Type 59 chassis was the framework for a series of related variants showing off the versatility of the base design. These variants included improved Type 59 combat models, Armored Recovery Vehicle (ARV) forms and vehicles with Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA) blocks to content with newer, more potent enemy guns and ammunition.

The Type 59 was at the world's center stage when it was used against Chinese students at Tiananman Square in Beijing during the 1989 uprising. A lone, still-unidentified student became a global icon for peace when he stood in the path of a column of advancing Type 59 tanks.

The Type 59 saw considerable export to many countries in the Middle East and Africa. About 9,500 examples were produced from the span of 1958 until 1985 by NORINCO (First Inner Mongolia Machinery Factory).

As completed, the vehicle weighed 40 tons (short) and featured a length of 6 meters, a width of 3.25 meters, and a height of 2.6 meters. Its crew comprised four individials with special roles within the hull and turret. The turret mounted a rifled 100mm main gun and gave full 360-degree traversal. Armor protection reached 203mm at the vehicle's most critical facings. Power was from a Model 12150L V-12 liquid-cooled diesel unit outputting 520 horsepower. The drive sprocket lay at rear with the track idler at front - no track return rollers were used. Five double-tired roadwheels were fitted to either hull side in a track-and-wheel arrangement. The hull sat atop a torsion bar suspension system for cross-country mobility.

Operational range reached 450 kilometers though this could be increased to 600 kilometers with the addition of external fuel tanks (another common Soviet tank trait). Road speeds reached 50 kph.

Myanmar and Sri Lanka are former operators of the Type 59 tank series.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one land system design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the NORINCO Type 59 Main Battle Tank (MBT).
1 x Model 12150L V-12 liguid-cooled, diesel-fueled engine developing 520 horsepower at 2,000rpm.
Installed Power
28 mph
45 kph
Road Speed
267 miles
430 km
The physical qualities of the NORINCO Type 59 Main Battle Tank (MBT).
29.5 ft
9 meters
O/A Length
10.7 ft
3.27 meters
O/A Width
8.5 ft
2.59 meters
O/A Height
79,366 lb
36,000 kg | 39.7 tons
Armament & Ammunition
Available supported armament, ammunition, and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the NORINCO Type 59 Main Battle Tank (MBT).
1 x 100mm main gun in turret.
1 x 7.62mm co-axial machine gun in turret.
1 x 12.7mm Anti-Aircraft (AA) machine gun on turret roof.
1 x 7.62mm machine gun on turret roof (optional).
34 x 100mm projectiles.
200 x 12.7mm ammunition.
3,500 x 7.62mm ammunition.
Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear Protection (CBRN) - YES - OPTIONAL.
Notable series variants as part of the NORINCO Type 59 family line.
Type 59 - Original production model of Soviet T-54 MBT. Also available in 105mm main gun upgrade.
T-72Z / Safir 74 - Iranian variant
Type 59 - Air defense vehicle with twin-35mm guns.
Type 59-I - Late production model designation; laser-range finder; revised fire control system.
Type 59-II - Upgunned 105mm main gun variant; 58hp diesel engine; two-axis gun stabilization.
Type 59 ARV - Armored Recovery Vehicle
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the NORINCO Type 59. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national land systems listing.

Total Production: 9,500 Units

Contractor(s): China NORth INdustries COmpany (NORINCO) - China
National flag of Albania National flag of Bangladesh National flag of China National flag of Iraq National flag of Iran National flag of Myanmar National flag of North Korea National flag of Pakistan National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Sudan National flag of Tanzania National flag of Vietnam National flag of Zambia National flag of Zimbabwe

[ Albania; Bangladesh; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Cambodia; China; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Iraq; Iran; Kosovo; Myanmar (former); North Korea; Pakistan; Republic of the Congo; Sri Lanka (former); Sudan; Tanzania; Vietnam; Zambia; Zimbabwe ]
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Image of the NORINCO Type 59
Image from the Chinese Ministry of Defense.
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Image of the NORINCO Type 59
Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.

Design Qualities
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to battlefield requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The NORINCO Type 59 Main Battle Tank (MBT) appears in the following collections:
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