OPERATORS: Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Belarus; Bulgaria; Cuba; Croatia; Czech Republic; Czechoslovakia; East Germany; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Finland; Georgia; Hungary; India; Iran; Iraq; Kazakhstan; Libya; Poland; Romania; Russia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; South Ossetia; Soviet Union; Syria; Ukraine; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zimbabwe
Due to its Cold War origins, the 2S1's fighting compartment is fully protected from Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) weapons. Infra-red night vision is standard for the driver and commander positions. Optional track widths allow the 2S1 to traverse various soft-ground terrains as needed.
The engine is fitted to a separated compartment at the front right of the hull and consists of a YaMZ-238N diesel-fueled engine delivering approximately 300 horsepower. This supplies the 2S1 with a top road speed of 37 miles per hour and an operational range nearing 310 miles.
A trained crew can fire off up to a maximum of five projectiles per minute while two projectiles per minute is the standard sustained rate. The 122mm gun of the 2S1 can reach targets out to 15 kilometers on standard projectiles and up to 22 kilometers when utilizing special rocket-assisted munitions. The main gun is cleared to fire a variety of conventional munitions including High-Explosive (HE), Armor-Piercing High-Explosive (APHE) and flechette (steel arrow dispensing) rounds. The 2S1 can also fire chemical based warheads. Up to 40 x 122mm projectiles can be stored aboard the 2S1 interior.
The 2S1 was further developed into other useful battlefield roles for the Red Army and its other operators. This included such types as a mine clearer and chemical reconnaissance vehicle. Other nations have taken the 2S1 design steps further to produce more custom-minded battlefield solutions such as those supporting guided anti-tank missiles or utilizing commonality of parts with other chassis systems.
In Red Army service, the 2S1 was formally replaced by the 2S9 and 2S19 series of self-propelled guns. The phase out process of existing 2S1s began in 2007. Other former operators of the type included the Czech Republic, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Yugoslavia - these either being placed in reserve status or passed on to successor states. In the case of East German 2S1s, they were phased out of service in 1990 following the reunification of the country from its East and West post-World War 2 components.
The largest operators of the 2S1 (beyond the Soviet Union) became Ukraine, Bulgaria, Belarus, Poland and India - each utilizing hundreds of the type in their respective services. At least 70 2S1s served with the Finnish Army under the designation of "122 PsH 74".