The Russian originated GAZ-2975 "Tigr" ("Tiger") is the Russian Army equivalent to the ubiquitous HUMVEE multipurpose 4x4 wheeled vehicle of the American military. The type saw its design phase begin in 2001 through the Military Industrial Company (MIC) with production beginning in 2004 and service entry occurring during 2006. The vehicle shares some broad physical similarities with the American offering and has the same multirole, multipurpose, all-terrain battlefield functionality as its competing design.
The Tigr was first showcased to the public during IDEX 2001.
The vehicle is a 16,000lb machine with an overall length of 19 feet, a width of 7.9 feet and a height to the hull roof of 7.9 feet. The forward windscreen is of a two-section arrangement with the sides of the vehicle featuring thick rectangular vision ports. The hull roof line is flat and can mount the optional gun position as in the HUMVEE. Entry/exit for the occupants is by way of hinged, automobile-style doors. The vehicle is suspended atop a torsion bar suspension system for off-road travel and comfort with its four large road wheels set to the extreme corners of the chassis for strong balance. Armor protection ranges from 5mm to 7mm depending on configuration.
Power for the Tigr is served through various American Cummins diesel-fueled offerings in the 6-cylinder mold as well as a YaMZ-534 4-cylinder model. Output ranges from 180- to 215-horsepower depending on installation. The engine is mated to a GAZ JSC 5-speed manual transmission and can alternatively be paired with the Allison LCT-1000 automatic series or the GM 545RFE line. Operational ranges reach 620 miles on internal fuel with a maximum road speed of 87 miles per hour on roads and 50 miles per hour off-road. The driver sits at the front-left of the passenger cabin with a passenger seat to his right over the center console containing the transmission control.
Armament is variable and generally based on mission need. Typical load outs include a single 7.62mm PKP general purpose machine gun or the 30mm AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher - much in the same vein as the American HUMVEE.
The Tigr is the standard high mobility vehicle of Russian military forces. Serial production began in full during 2007. A civilian market version has emerged as the Tigr-2. Internal security make use of the SPM-1.
Other variants include the GAZ-2330 unarmored mark and the five-door GAZ-23304. The GAZ-233011 and GAZ-233012 are four- and two-door haulers (respectively) with a flat bed. The GAZ-233013 is an unarmored three-door mark. The Tigr-M is a new updated version with extra armor protection, a diesel powerplant and increased passenger seating. The Kornet-D/EM is the Tigr with the Kornet-EM anti-tank missile launcher fitted atop its roof. The Tigr-6A SPV is a proposed officer battlefield transport.
To date, the Tigr line has been adopted by the militaries and police forces of Armenia, China (partial local production), Congo, Guinea, Mongolia, Nicaragua and Uruguay.