Infanterikanonvagn 91 (Ikv 91)
Though no longer in service, the Infanterikanonvagn 91 filled the role of tank destroyer for the Swedish Army during the Cold War.
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With a long-lasting and bloody ground war all but certain in Cold War Europe, the Swedish Army was not content to stand on the sidelines with the Soviet Empire one neighboring country away. As such, a requirement for a new mobile tank destroyer was issued by the Swedish Army and granted to Hagglund & Soner. Utilizing some of the automotive components of the existing (and capable) Pbv 302 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) line of 1961, the vehicle was drawn up to Swedish Army specifications and delivered as a pilot vehicle in 1969. After the requisite trials, the vehicle was formally adopted into the inventory of the Army as the "Infanterikanonvagn 91" (Ikv 91) and managed an existence until the turn of the century in which both the Ikv 91, and Pbv 302, were eventually replaced by the all-modern CV90 tracked vehicle family.
Despite its size, the Ikv 91 was crewed by four personnel made up of the driver, commander, gunner and loader. The driver managed a position at the front-left hull with the remaining crew in the turret and fighting compartment at the center of the vehicle. The engine was fitted to a compartment at the rear. Overall dimensions included a running length of 8.85 meters with the gun forwards, a width of 3 meters and a height to the turret roof line of 2.32 meters. Armor protection allowed for direct hits by small arms fire and up to 20mm projectiles. Due to the confined nature of the turret design, a hatch was added to expel spent shell casings. Amphibious qualities was designed into the Ikv 91 as well, allowing for water crossings to be undertaken (propelled by its own tracks though some production models were fitted with propllers). The vehicle could even retain all combat qualities in water and fire its main gun.
The Ikv 91 was completed with running gear consisting of six road wheels surrounded by a wide track link section suitable for the rather Arctic-like conditions encountered in portions of Sweden. The drive sprocket was at the rear with the track idler at front. Power to the vehicle was supplied by a Volvo Penta Model TD120A turbocharged 6-xylinder diesel-fueled engine developing 330 horsepower at 2,200rpm. This provided the Ikv 91 with a maximum road speed of 65 kmh and operational road range of 500 kilometers (both values degraded with off-road traveling. The chassis was suspended by a torsion beam suspension system offering relative comfort when traversing uneven terrain.
The Ikv 91 was armed with the 90mm Bofors L/54 KV90S73 series rifled main gun. The main gun was cleared to fire various HE (High-Explosive), HEAT (High-Explosive, Anti-Tank) and AP (Armor-Piercing) projectiles which allowed the crew to counter nearly any then-current battlefield threat. The gun provided for good penetration values during the period prior to wide-scale acceptance of the 120mm main gun by the Soviets. A digital fire control system was used to provide much improved first-shot, first-kill capabilities and firing-on-the-move. A well-trained and experience gunnery crew could fire off eight rounds per minute. Nightvision for the crew was standard allowing the vehicle to operate in all light conditions and smoke. Secondary armament included 2 x m/39 light machine guns, one as a coaxial mounting alongside the main gun and the other on the turret roof at the commander's cupola to counter low-flying aircraft threats. The coaxial mounting was utilized in ranging the main gun and could prove equally useful in managing enemy infantry threats attempting to take the tank. It was only later that a formal laser rangefinding apparatus was adopted and largely eliminated the use of the coaxial 7.62mm gun for ranging. A pair of 71mm Lyran grenade launchers were also featured in the armament mix. Twin banks of six smoke grenades were fitted to either turret side.
Production of the Ikv 91 spanned from 1975 to 1978 in which 212 examples were delivered to the Swedish Army (none were sold to export customers despite some interest in the design). A 105mm-armed variant and dedicated anti-tank missile carrier were proposed but both programs came to naught.