The 2K22 "Tunguska" (NATO codename of SA-19 "Grisom") is a self-propelled, tracked air defense system that combines both rapid-fire automatic cannon power and surface-to-air missile capability. The targeting system relies on a radar sensor with fire control handled via IFF (Identification Friend or Foe). All of the primary tracking and engagement facilities are fitted to a traversing turret allowing for a base 360-degree arc of fire with elevation/depression at +80/-6 respectively. The vehicle is crewed by four personnel and powered by a V-46-4 turbocharged V12 water-cooled diesel engine outputting 780 horsepower. The Tunguska was developed and produced by the KBP Instrument Design Bureau between 1970 and 1980. Entering production in 1976, the Tunguska is in active service with a few forces as of this writing (2013).
As a tracked vehicle, the 2K22 has the inherent capability of moving off road as part of a mobile mechanized formation thanks to its engine fitting and hydropneumatic suspension system. The Tunguska features a top road speed of 40 miles per hour with an operational road range of 310 miles. The chassis can clear 1 meter obstacles.
Primary armament is 8 x missile launch tubes and this is supplemented by 2 x 30mm 2A38M cannons supported through 1,904 projectiles aboard. Missile support includes the 9M311, 9M311K, 9M311-1 or 9M113-M1 series missiles.
The type has since been produced in a handful of notable variants beginning with the 2K22 of 1982. The definitive production model then became the 2K22M of 1986 which was fielded on a GM-352M chassis. This was followed by the improved 2K22M1 of 1988 which was built upon the GM-5975 chassis and utilized a longer-range missile (9M311-M1) of 10 kilometers coupled to a modernized fire control system (FCS). The ultimate evolution of the Tunguska system is the 2K22M which features an all-new FCS and longer-range missile support (18 kilometers).
The 2K22 Tunguska will eventually be replaced in full within the inventory of the Russian military by the modern "Pantsir-S1" 8x8 wheeled anti-aircraft weapon system.