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AZP S-60


Towed Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA)


The S-60 served the Soviet Empire well during her tenure, ultimately replaced by more potent and sophisticated SAM systems.
Authored By: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB | Last Edited: 3/3/2018
The S-60 was designed primarily as a 57mm single-barreled, towed, anti-aircraft defense system. The gun was developed in the late 1940's and was influenced by captured German systems of World War 2 - specifically, the 5.5-cm Gerat 58 and the 5cm Flak 41 series guns. The S-60 itself became a short-to-medium range weapon featuring robust qualities and able to engage lowing flying aircraft and even lightly armored vehicles. The weapon system was introduced to Warsaw Pact nations in 1950 and soon after, the gun was sold to communist-friendly nations throughout the Middle East and South Asia.

S-60 Walk-Around

The original S-60 had a long thin barrel capped by a multi-perforated muzzle brake. A large gun shield was affixed to both sides of the barrel and served as a reminder of her German origins. Regardless, the shield did little in protecting the seven-man crew charged with maintaining, arming and manning the weapon system. The shield folded away during transport as did the horizontal ammunition feed tray. Four road wheels supported the carriage during road travel. A travel brace was fitted between the forward pair of tires and served to lock the main barrel in place during journeys.

S-60 Ammunition

The S-60 fired a 57mmx384R caliber six pound projectile and, in 1950, two basic types were made available - the armor piercing (API-T) round and the high explosive (HEI-T) round. The crew would load the 30-pound, 4-round clips into the horizontal feed tray. To increase loading speed, the designers attached an ammunition "ready rack" to the left side of the S-60 breech that could hold 4 x 4 round clips, ready to fire, near the feed mechanism. The gun proved stable when fired and made use of a three-point jack system which would lift the gun system off of the ground from her four wheeled carriage. The normal Soviet prime mover for the time, and the vehicle charged with towing the S-60, was the Ural-375 general purpose truck - an all-around 4.5 ton 6x6 vehicle produced at the Russian Ural Automotive Plant. The truck had two gas tanks holding 95 gallons each and her range was 450 miles at a 25 mile per hour pace.

The S-60 is Improved

Demand for sales in the Warsaw Pact countries led to improvements in the S-60's fire control system. Initially, the gun operated only with an on-carriage optical system for target rangefinding. As the enemy improved her fighting aircraft technology, the initial manually-operated firing system became limited. As a solution, the Soviets adapted a flap wheel PUAZO-5 director and SON-4 radar system for improved capabilities. The calculator and the radars were transported into action by the same Ural 375 series trucks. As the radar was introduced, the range of the S-60 was increased from 4,000 meters (using the original optical ranging equipment) to 6,000 meters with the SON-4 radar system. The radar improved the defensive role of the S-60 against planes, helicopters and even some light armored vehicles. Soon, this system was upgraded with the PUAZO-6/60 director and the SON-9 or SON-9A radars. A self-propelled gun (SPG) model was then produced with both twin- and quad-barrel fittings. These versions were mated to the T-54 main battle tank chassis and designated as S-68 (or ZSU-57-2) in 1957.


S-60 Variants

The S-60, the self-propelled ZSU-57-2 and the Type-59 (itself a Chinese-produced version of the Soviet S-60), was exported to Vietnam in great numbers during the Vietnam War. These were used as ground support weapons to protect high profile targets such airfields, bridges and military bases. Hundreds of S-60's became the backbone of the low-altitude air defense system across the North and covered some 460 meters (1,500ft) and 1,500 meters (5,000 ft) of air space. The S-60 was developed into a navalized form for use on Soviet surface vessels as the AK-725. The ZIF-72 existed as a similar naval vessel but housed within a metal structure. China also made use of the ZSU-57-2 as the Type 80. Poland made a license-production version all their own under the Tarnow Metal Works banner.

Soviet Models

The Soviet anti-aircraft organization deployed its S-60 groups numbering 24 guns. A regimental AA battery network consisted of six guns, and a fire control radar director. New German-designed fire control system (the SON-9) was installed in the S-60. The new system brought with it an improved distance measuring calculator along with a modern radar called the "RPK-1 Vaza". However, some older S-60 models still maintained their original flap wheel as the radar fire control system.

The World Over

The S-60 and its variants were used in wars all over the globe to aid Communist military goals. The S-60 was used against the Israeli Air Force (IAF) in the Six-Day War as well as in Yom Kippur. The S-60 protected Soviet air fields during the Afghanistan War and was used extensively during the Vietnam Conflict. Both sides of the Iran-Iraq War used the S-60 and Iraq, once again, put these systems to good use in the 1991 Gulf War. Some fifty years of total active service has since proved the German-Soviet design's worth.

Technologically superior Soviet/Russian Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM) systems have replaced the outdated towed S-60 gun and its variants within the Russian inventory.






Specifications



Year:
1950
Crew
7
Manufacturing
State Factories - Soviet Union (among others)
Production
4,000 Units
National flag of Afghanistan National flag of Albania National flag of Algeria National flag of Angola National flag of Armenia National flag of Bangladesh National flag of Belarus National flag of Bulgaria National flag of Cambodia National flag of China National flag of Cuba National flag of Czech Republic National flag of Egypt National flag of Ethiopia National flag of Finland National flag of Georgia National flag of Hungary National flag of India National flag of Iran National flag of Iraq National flag of Laos National flag of Mali National flag of Mauritania National flag of Mongolia National flag of Morocco National flag of Mozambique National flag of Nicaragua National flag of North Korea National flag of Pakistan National flag of Poland National flag of Romania National flag of Russia National flag of Slovakia National flag of Soviet Union National flag of Sudan National flag of Syria National flag of Thailand National flag of Turkmenistan National flag of Ukraine National flag of ; Vietnam National flag of Yemen National flag of Yugoslavia National flag of Zambia Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Bangladesh; Bosnia; Bulgaria; Belarus; Cambodia; China; Congo; Cuba; Czech Republic; Egypt; Ethiopia; Finland; Georgia; Guinea; Hungary; India; Iran; Iraq; Krygyztan; Laos; Somalia; Mali; Morocco; Mauritania; Mongolia; Mozambique; Nicaragua; North Korea; Pakistan; Poland; Romania; Russia; Somalia; Soviet Union; Sudan; Slovakia; Syria; Thailand; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vietnam; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zambia
- Anti-Aircraft / Airspace Denial
- Fire Support / Assault / Breaching
Length:
27.89 ft (8.5 m)
Width/Span:
6.74 ft (2.054 m)
Height:
7.78 ft (2.37 m)
Weight:
5 tons (4,660 kg; 10,274 lb)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the AZP S-60 production model)
None inherently; URAL-375 GP truck used as prime mover.
(Showcased powerplant information pertains to the AZP S-60 production model)
Maximum Range:
4 miles (6 km)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the AZP S-60 production model; Compare this entry against any other in our database)
1 x 57mm main gun barrel

Ammunition:
Dependent on ammunition supply; API-T and HEI-T types available.
(Showcased armament details pertain to the AZP S-60 production model)
S-60 - Base Series Designation; single 57mm gun.
S-68 (ZSU-57-2) - Dual-barrel self-propelled model.
AK-725 (ZIF-72) - Navalized version of the S-60; available in single, dual and quad mounts as well.
Type 59 - Chinese license-production designation for the S-60.
Type 80 - Chinese designation for ZSU-57-2 SPG model series.

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