The ZPU-4 anti-aircraft gun was developed in the post-war Soviet Union, seeing official operational service beginning in 1949. The towed artillery system was completed with four air-cooled, quick-change 14.5mm heavy machine guns featuring a maximum range out to 8,000 meters (roughly 5 miles) and an altitude range of 5,000 meters (3.1 miles) - this weapon was proven more effective in the 1,400 meter / 0.86 miles - altitude range. Improved optical gun sights were added later in its production life to help increase its battlefield effectiveness. The system could be set up and made ready-to-fire in less than thirty seconds, making it a flexible mobile air defense system. It went on to serve the Soviet Union well during its time as a frontline weapon and stocked the inventories of many Soviet-aligned customers through export.
The ZPU-4 anti-aircraft system received its baptism of fire through operation by combat forces of China and North Korea during the Korean War (1950-1953). It saw considerable use against low-flying aircraft in the Vietnam War (1955-1975) where it became one of the most feared anti-aircraft weapons for American helicopters as the four-barreled arrangement could easily pierce critical components of the low-flying, slow-moving machines. Iraq managed a stock of these guns during the Persian Gulf War of 1991 and many of these fell to disuse after the American-led invasion of 2003. The ZPU-4 has been witnessed in combat service as recently as the Syrian Civil War (2011-Present).
Many countries have since replaced the aging ZPU-4 weapon - which relied on heavy machine guns - in favor of the ZU-23 anti-aircraft defense system - relying on 23mm autocannons. However, the ZPU-4 it still continues in frontline service with a handful of nations today (2011) including that of North Korea. The weapon went on to see extensive export to Soviet-aligned nations during the Cold War years, peak usage marking over 50 total operators. Chinese factories also locally produced variants of the gun system (under license) as the "Type 56" and "Type 58".
The ZPU-4 is typically seen in its towed/wheeled configuration integrating the weapon, crew seating, optics, and mounting hardware along a four-wheeled carriage to be towed by mover vehicle. The gun can also be removed for use as a stationary weapon or set atop the rear of a vehicle for mobile fire power. Besides its inherent value in tackling low-flying aerial targets, the system can prove equally-effective against light-armored vehicles while also having a tremendous psychological effect on unprotected infantry.
The ZPU-4 belongs to a family of Soviet anti-aircraft guns designated around the number of barrels in use. The ZPU-1 was given a single barrel while the ZPU-2 showcased a pair of guns. Appropriately, the ZPU-4 followed with its four gun arrangement.
Manufacturing State Factories - Soviet Union / China
Production 20,000 Units
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Angola; Bangladesh; Benin; Bulgaria; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; China; Republic of Congo; Croatia; Cuba; Egypt; Ethiopia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Iran; Iraq; Israel; North Korea; Laos; Libya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Malta; Mauritania; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Namibia; Nicaragua; North Korea; Pakistan; Romania; Russia; Sao Tome and Principe; Seychelles; Sri Lanka; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Syria; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Vietnam; Yugoslavia; Zambia; Zaire; Zimbabwe
- Anti-Aircraft / Airspace Denial
- Fire Support / Assault / Breaching
14.86 ft (4.53 m)
5.64 ft (1.72 m)
6.99 ft (2.13 m)
2 tons (1,810 kg; 3,990 lb)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the ZPU-4 production model)
None. This is a towed-artillery piece.
(Showcased powerplant information pertains to the ZPU-4 production model)
4,971 miles (8,000 km)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the ZPU-4 production model; Compare this entry against any other in our database)
4 x 14.5mm heavy machine guns.
Ammunition: 4,800 x 14.5mm ammunition
(Showcased armament details pertain to the ZPU-4 production model)
ZPU-1 - Single-barrel 14.5mm anti-aircraft machine gun; appearing in 1949.
ZPU-2 - Double-barreled version; appearing in 1949.
ZPU-4 - Four-barreled version; appearing in 1949.
Type 58 - Chinese production version of the ZPU-2
Type 56 - Chinese production version of the ZPU-4
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