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Boeing KC-46 Pegasus

In-flight Refueler / Aerial Tanker Aircraft

United States | 2019

"The Boeing KC-45 beat out the EADS Airbus 330 submission the second time around to win the KC-X tanker competition for the United States Air Force."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 04/24/2023 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
Flag of An artist impression of the finalized Boeing KC-46 aerial refueling tanker; USAF picture
The Boeing KC-46 was selected to replace the aging line of Boeing KC-135 "Stratotankers" through the KC-X program - a competition initially won by EADS/Northrop Grumman. The KC-46 will be a fully-modernized aerial tanker primarily utilized by the United States Air Force and is expected to enter service within the next five years in quantitative numbers. The KC-46 airframe will feature new technologies as found on the Boeing 787 Dreamliner passenger airliner as well as qualities akin to heavy service military transport aircraft. This will allow the KC-46 the ability undertake roles beyond refueling such as cargo transport and MEDEVAC. The aircraft is expected to service multiple fixed-wing types from the USAF, USN and USMC as well as NATO and US-allied nations including large strategic bomber types such as the Boeing B-52 "Stratofortress".

When an initial USAF initiative to acquire Boeing KC-767s aerial tankers fell aground in 2003, a new endeavor was born to develop a new dedicated tanker aircraft through the "KC-X" program in 2006. Both Boeing and EADS/Northrop (on behalf of Airbus) threw their hats into the ring in the hopes of netting the lucrative long-term $40 billion defense contract. Boeing eventually offered their KC-767 while EADS/Northrop delivered their A330 MRTT (this as the "KC-30"). The United States Department of Defense formally selected the EADS/Northrop A330 MRTT/KC-30 proposal and marked the type for development as the "KC-45A" in February of 2008.

The selection of the French Airbus 330 spurred Boeing to action to which the American concern filed a formal protest to American authorities and took their outrage to the public square to help gain a larger audience of favor. The US Government Accountability Office (GAO), citing several miscalculations on the part of the USAF during the initial proposal review and subsequent selection, sided with Boeing and restarted the KC-X bidding process anew.

In the second round of fighting, Boeing resubmitted their KC-767 while EADS - now going it alone without Northrop Grumman support - once again delivered their Airbus A330 proposal. The original selection was overturned in favor of the American-based KC-767 which was formally selected as the winner on February 24th, 2011. For the USAF inventory, the KC-767 is redesignated as the "KC-46A" and, at its core, remains essentially a modernized and militarized version of the original Boeing 767 passenger airliner that began service back in 1982. However, the KC-46 will bring along a new KC-10 style refueling boom as well as cockpit features of the new Boeing 787 "Dreamliner". The initial phase of the KC-46 program will include an "Engineering and Manufacturing Development" portion with a first flight scheduled for sometime in 2014. The USAF intends on procuring some 179 total KC-46 aerial refueling tankers for its current inventory, allowing the release of many of its KC-135 Stratotankers (803 produced since 1957).

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Externally, the KC-46 mimics much of the conventional Boeing design philosophy with its streamlined fuselage swept wing surfaces. The cockpit flightdeck is fitted to the extreme forward end of the tubular fuselage with framed windscreen windows allowing for adequate viewing out of the cockpit. The wings are low-mounted onto the fuselage and swept rearwards at 34-degree angles with noticeable dihedral when viewed from the forward profile. The fuselage tapers to a point at the rear of the empennage to which a conventional tail wing plan is affixed. This includes a tall, wide-area vertical tail fin (clipped at its tip) as well as a pair of horizontal tailplanes canted slightly upwards. The undercarriage consists of two main landing gear legs near the wingroots and a nose landing gear leg under the cockpit. The main legs sport four wheels while the nose leg is completed with a standard pairing. There are three rectangular access doors along the fuselage sides for crew and passengers alike. The KC-46 features a standard seating arrangement for 15 operational personnel which include two pilots and the Aerial Refueling Operator (ARO). Maximum take-off weight for the KC-46A is listed by the USAF at 415,000lb while its fuel capacity is 212,300lb. Maximum transfer fuel load is listed at 207,670lb.

Design of the KC-46 is such that the type can be used to fuel any current and near-future US military (and allied) fixed-wing aircraft set up to receive in-flight refueling from an aerial tanker. Fuel delivery is via an updated KC-10-style extending boom assembly as well as a centerline drogue in addition to a pair of underwing aerial refueling pods (these mounted outboard of the engine nacelles). The drogue and underwing pods are designed specifically for use with aircraft that field an integrated refueling probe in their design. All told, the KC-46 can refuel up to three different aircraft types simultaneously thanks to its well-thought out and proven fuel delivery system and design.

The aircraft line will be powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney PW4062 series high-bypass turbofan engines of 62,000lbs thrust each, these contained in streamlined nacelles slung under each wing. Top speed is 570 miles per hour with a cruise speed of 530 miles per hour. Range is listed at 6,385 miles with a service ceiling of approximately 40,100 feet.

The internal arrangement of the KC-46 is somewhat flexible in design in that it can be used to fulfill a variety of missions along with its primary refueling role. The internal setup can be revised to include cargo space for up to 18 pallets or passenger seating for up to 58 personnel (as many as 114 if need be according to the USAF). The KC-46 can serve the MEDEVAC role as well by supplying room for up to 58 medical litters and applicable staff through the available specialized medical configuration. Maximum cargo capacity is 65,000 lb.

As of this writing, development of the KC-46 is ongoing though cost overruns were noted in June of 2011, this to be covered by Boeing.

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February 2014 - It was announced that the KC-46 has been given the official name of "Pegasus".

July 2015 - It was announced that sub-par fuel was introduced into the fuel system of test article EMD2, forcing a delay of its first flight until fall of 2015 (from summer of 2015). Four flyable prototypes are expected by project's end.

September 2015 - A KC-46 prototype achieved a first flight on September 25th.

November 2015 - It was revealed that Japan had selected the KC-46A marking the country as the first export customer of the Boeing product. Japan is expected to procure three aircraft to go along with its existing stock of four KC-767J models.

January 2016 - Recorded the first fuel transfer from a KC-46A to a receiving F-16C Fighting Falcon aircraft. The tanker aircraft was test aircraft EMD-2. More tests with various other aircraft are slated to follow.

July 2016 - A KC-46 has fueled a C-17 transport aircraft with new hydraulic pressure-relief valves added to the KC-46's boom system.

December 2016 - The USAF expects the KC-46 to begin production and see operational service sometime in 2017.

May 2017 - USAF authorities revealed that the troubled KC-46 is some months behind schedule. The initial KC-46A is not expected to be delivered until the fall of 2017.

September 2017 - Already behind schedule and over budget, the KC-46 design is facing two key issues in testing: Unauthorized extension of the boom system when disconnecting from a receiving aircraft and no ability for the operator to see when his receptacle has overshot the receiving aircraft's probe.

October 2017 - It was revealed by Boeing that a KC-46 had successfully refueled another KC-46 in-air during a test flight. To date, the aircraft had accumulated over 2,000 hours of flying time and connected with various types of receiving/trailing aircraft some 1,300 times.

December 2017 - The first operational-quality KC-46 example achieved its first flight on December 5th, 2017. The United States Air Force is expecting delivery of the platform in 2018.

January 2018 - The KC-46A model has received its 767-2C certification from the FAA.

February 2018 - It was announced that Japan had ordered the KC-46 tanker product from Boeing. This marks the aircraft's first foreign sale.

April 2018 - Delays continue for the KC-46A program - this time centered on the centerline drogue system, an issue identified by the USAF in testing.

May 2018 - The KC-46A has completed its FAA supplemental type certification flight testing phase.

June 2018 - The United States Air Force and Boeing have selected October 2018 as the official first-delivery month of the initial KC-46A product. The original agreement was to have deliveries begin before mid-2017 showing just how far the program has fallen behind. The remaining aircraft of the order will arrive by April of 2019.

September 2018 - Boeing has been awarded a $2.9 billion contract for eighteen additional KC-46A models.

September 2018 - The KC-46 has attained FAA Supplemental Type Certification (STC). This finalizes the series' FAA certification phase.

September 2018 - KC-46 systems certification has been received allowing first-deliveries to remain on schedule for October 2018.

November 2018 - It was revealed that the USAF is already working on a KC-46A successor. The KC-46 series is expected to fly into the 2060s, requiring a successor to be ready to take on the role.

December 2018 - A KC-46A production model has completed its "Phase II" receiver aircraft testing.

December 2018 - The KC-46A is in contention to become India's choice for its "next-generation tanker" requirement. six are being sought and the field includes the Airbus A330MRTT.

January 2019 - The Japan Ministry of Defense has earmarked funds for five upcoming fiscal years to procure up to four Boeing KC-46 Pegasus aerial tankers.

January 2019 - The United States Air Force finally moved to accept the KC-46A after years of developmental delays. Several design issues still remain, however, including one related to the refueling boom's remote vision system.

March 2019 - Deliveries of new KC-46 tankers has been paused "indefinitely" by the USAF to look into a 'foreign object debris' issue encountered in pre-delivery aircraft on the Boeing assembly lines.

April 2019 - Deliveries of new KC-46 tankers has been stopped by the USAF for a second time in as many months due to "Foreign Object Debris" (FOD) left inside the aircraft upon delivery from Boeing to the USAF.

June 2019 - In an effort to drum up additional support / sales for its delayed tanker program, Boeing has debuted the platform at Paris Air Show 2019.

September 2019 - A newly-discovered design defect (related to floor cargo locks inadvertently releasing during flight) in the KC-46 tanker by the USAF will keep it from hauling passengers and cargo until rectified.

September 2019 - Boeing has begun assembly of the first KC-46 destined for Japan.

December 2019 - Boeing is studying the feasibility of installing laser-range finders for its troubled refueling boom camera system.

April 2020 - The USAF and Boeing have agreed to a rework of the Remote Vision System (RVS) available to KC-46 platforms.

June 2020 - Boeing will begin active testing of the revised Remote Vision System (RVS) applied to the fleet of USAF KC-46 tankers.

October 2020 - Japan has announced it will be procuring an additional two KC-46A tanker aircraft.

January 2021 - The USAF has announced a $1.6 billion USD order covering 12 KC-46A tankers. The deal runs through April 2023 and is set to further strengthen the KC-46A fleet for the service.

January 2021 - Boeing has received $2.1 billion USD for the USAF purchase of 15 KC-46A tanker aircraft. The service has contracted for 94 total outstanding airframes with deliveries to be completed by the end of 2024.

February 2021 - The Israeli Air Force has committed to purchasing the KC-46 as it modernizes into the decade.

February 2021 - Air Mobility Command has given its approval to the KC-46 series for limited operations.

March 2021 - Canada has given up on the KC-46 as a replacement for its aging CC-150 fleet. The A330 MRTT remains the sole option.

August 2021 - Japan has completed various air-to-air refueling operations with their new KC-46A.

Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Boeing KC-767A In-flight Refueler / Aerial Tanker Aircraft.
2 x General Electric GE CF6-80C2 non-afterburning turbofan engines developing 60,200 lb of thrust each.
569 mph
915 kph | 494 kts
Max Speed
40,026 ft
12,200 m | 8 miles
Service Ceiling
7,581 miles
12,200 km | 6,587 nm
Operational Range
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Boeing KC-767A In-flight Refueler / Aerial Tanker Aircraft.
159.1 ft
48.50 m
O/A Length
156.2 ft
(47.60 m)
O/A Width
51.8 ft
(15.80 m)
O/A Height
181,610 lb
(82,377 kg)
Empty Weight
412,000 lb
(186,880 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Notable series variants as part of the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus family line.
KC-46 - Base Series Designation.
EMD-2 - Prototype Model.
KC-46A - Initial Production Model Designation.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 181 Units

Contractor(s): The Boeing Company - USA
National flag of Israel National flag of modern Japan National flag of the United States

[ Israel; Japan; United States ]
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Image of the Boeing KC-46 Pegasus
An artist impression of the finalized Boeing KC-46 aerial refueling tanker; USAF picture

Going Further...
The Boeing KC-46 Pegasus In-flight Refueler / Aerial Tanker Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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