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Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule)

Single-Engine, Twin-Seat Multirole Biplane / Basic Trainer Aircraft

Soviet Union | 1929

"The Polikarpov Po-2 represents the most-produced biplane of all time."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/14/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
Few aircraft of aviation history can manage to secure the two primary qualifiers recognized for a design's success - 1) a long-term (typically decades long) service tenure and 2) a high production count / total. The Soviet-era Polikarpov Po-2 managed just that with a career beginning in 1929 and continuing into the late-1970s. Production, spanning from 1928 until 1952, yielded between 20,000 and 40,000 total aircraft units (sources are unsure). With such a reach, the Po-2 went on to have a healthy and long service career undertaking a variety of roles - this versatility garnering it the NATO codename of "Mule". To the Soviets it was known simply as "Kukuruznik", translating to "maize duster" or "crop duster".

The Po-2 was completed in a traditional two-seat biplane-winged arrangement. The personnel sat in line, in open-air cockpits, with the pilot at front and the observer / machine gunner to his rear. The mainplanes were arranged in the typical over-under biplane format featuring N-style struts, applicable support / control surface cabling, and showcasing single bays. The engine was fitted to the nose section in the usual way and drove a two-bladed propeller. The tail unit held a single, rounded vertical fin with low-mounted horizontal planes. The undercarriage was fixed in place, the pilot offered two rubber-tired landing wheels, while the tail unit was supported through a simple skid structure. This gave the Po-2 rather excellent rough-field qualities at a time when more complex and inherently delicate, all-metal monoplane aircraft designs were being built. In addition to that, the Po-2 was noted for its strong Short Take-Off and Landing (STOL) capabilities and held an inherent simplicity about its design.

Polikarpov, eventually to become a storied concern in Soviet-era aviation, set out to develop a homegrown solution to succeed the aging line of British Avro 504 biplanes in service globally since 1913. World War 1 (1914-1918) secured this aircraft's place in aviation history but its time had come and gone by the 1920s so a modern, equally-low-risk replacement was sought. It served primarily in a training role with the newly-minted Soviet Air Force through the "U-2" designation.

A first-flight of a Po-2 form was had on June 24th, 1927 and testing continued into 1928 at which point preproduction aircraft were being finalized. Service entry began in 1929 with the supply originating from Leningrad factories.

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The aircraft managed a good existence during the tumultuous interwar period where it served in both military and civilian markets. It was pressed into wartime service with the arrival of World War 2 in September of 1939 and was used in the defense of Odessa during August-October of 1941 - following the German invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941). By this time, the aircraft was thoroughly equipped to drop light bombs (6 x 110lb drop bombs) and could be used in the ground attack role as necessary. The rear cockpit was typically outfitted with a standard Soviet 7.62mm caliber machine gun for self-defense. Beyond its attack role, the aircraft was a solid reconnaissance platform, night attacker and excellent military-level basic pilot trainer. Because of its slow speed and low-flying attack runs, the Po-2s proved very difficult for enemy fighters to shoot down. The aircraft fulfilled a plethora of roles into the final phase of the war, the eventual Fall of Berlin, which ended the conflict in Europe for good.

Fast-forward several years to the arrival of the Korean War (1950-1953) and Po-2s were still in play, this time for the North Korean Air Force (Korean People's Air Force). Like the Soviets, the North Koreans operated their Po-2 aircraft in daring surprise attack runs at night, often times taking their targets by surprise. Like the Germans in World War 2, the Americans in the Korean Conflict also found the Po-2 a difficult target to bring down owning to its slow-and-low flight regime. During the war, a Po-2 was credited as the only biplane to shoot down a jet, this an American Lockheed F-94 Starfire, which had slowed to just above 100 miles-per-hour. The Po-2 also became the only aircraft downed by a Douglas A-1 Skyraider in the war, this on June 16th, 1953.

Variants of the Po-2 proved plenty beginning with the initial Po-2 mark. U-2 was used to designate two-seat trainer biplanes and this group held a plethora of subvariants all its own. The Po-2 served in the VIP transport role, as an air ambulance, a staff communications platform, aerial photography offering and was even converted to serve on water via floatation gear. Operators ended up ranging from Albania and Bulgaria to Turkey and Yugoslavia. Notable operators included France (the Free French Air Force of World War 2), Nazi Germany (operating captured examples during World War 2) and North Korea.

The basic U-2 trainer mount has an overall length of 26.9 feet, a wingspan of 37.4 feet and a height of 10.1 feet. Empty weight was 1,700lb against an MTOW of 3,000lb. Power was served through a single Shvetsov M-11D series 5-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine of 125 horsepower. Maximum speed was listed at 95 miles per hour through cruising was closer to 70 mph. Range was out to 400 miles and the aircraft's service ceiling reached 10,000 feet. Rate-of-climb was 545 feet-per-minute.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Polikarpov U-2 (Mule) Single-Engine, Twin-Seat Multirole Biplane / Basic Trainer Aircraft.
1 x Shvetsov M-11D 5-cylinder radial piston engine developing 125 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
94 mph
152 kph | 82 kts
Max Speed
9,843 ft
3,000 m | 2 miles
Service Ceiling
391 miles
630 km | 340 nm
Operational Range
546 ft/min
166 m/min
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Polikarpov U-2 (Mule) Single-Engine, Twin-Seat Multirole Biplane / Basic Trainer Aircraft.
26.8 ft
8.17 m
O/A Length
37.4 ft
(11.40 m)
O/A Width
10.2 ft
(3.10 m)
O/A Height
1,698 lb
(770 kg)
Empty Weight
2,976 lb
(1,350 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule) Single-Engine, Twin-Seat Multirole Biplane / Basic Trainer Aircraft .
OPTIONAL (depending on model):
1 x 7.62mm ShKAS machine gun

6 x 110lb bombs
Notable series variants as part of the Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule) family line.
U-2 - Basic trainer model
U-2A (Po-2A) - Crop duster; fitted with M-11K engine of 115 horspeower.
U-2AO - Crop duster
U-2AP - Crop duster; 1,235 examples built.
U-2G - Experimental model; one-off example.
U-2KL - Canopy set over rear cabin space.
U-2LSh - Ground attacker; bomb and self-defense machine gun support.
U-2LPL - Experimental model; prone pilot's position.
U-2M (MU-2) - Floatplane variant; limited production.
U-2P - Floatplane variant; limited production.
U-2S - Air ambulance model of 1934.
U-2SS - Air ambulance model
U-2ShS - Staff liaison model of 1943; seating for four in rear section.
U-2SP - Civilian market transport model; seating for two; model of 1933.
U-2SPL - VIP transport model; seating for two in rear section.
U-2UT - Trainer variant; fitted with M-11D of 115 horsepower; limited production.
U-2LNB - Night attacker; model of 1942; support for drop bombs and self-defense machine guns.
U-2VS (Po-2VS) - Training and utility model.
U-2NAK - Night artillery observation platform; model of 1943.
U-3 - Trainer model with improved flight characteristics; carrying M-48 radial of 200 horsepower.
U-4 - Refined trainer model; limited production; thinner fuselage structure.
Po-2 - Base post-World War 2 model
Po-2A - Crop duster
Po-2GN - Loud speaker aircraft
Po-2L - VIP transport model
Po-2P - Floatplane version; limited production
Po-2S - Air ambulance
Po-2S-1 - Air ambulance
Po-2S-2 - Air ambulance
Po-2S-3 - Air ambulance
Po-2ShS - Staff communications platform; seating for up to three in rear cabin.
Po-2SP - Aerial photography platform
RV-23 - Floatplane variant
CSS-13 - Polish license-production model; 500 units built between 1948 and 1956.
CSS S-13 - Polish local production model; air ambulance version.
E-23 - Experimental platform of 1934.
K-62 - Czechoslovakian Air Force designation.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 40,200 Units

Contractor(s): Polikarpov OKB - Soviet Union
National flag of Albania National flag of Bulgaria National flag of China National flag of Czechia National flag of France National flag of Finland National flag of modern Germany National flag of Nazi Germany National flag of East Germany National flag of Hungary National flag of Mongolia National flag of North Korea National flag of Poland National flag of Romania National flag of the Soviet Union National flag of Turkey National flag of Yugoslavia

[ Albania; Bulgaria; China; Czechoslovakia; Finland; France (Free French); Nazi Germany; East Germany; Hungary; Mongolia; North Korea; Poland; Romania; Soviet Union; Turkey; Yugoslavia ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (94mph).

Graph Average of 75 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Image of the Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule)
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Polikarpov Po-2 (Mule) Single-Engine, Twin-Seat Multirole Biplane / Basic Trainer Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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