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Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Tojo)

Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft

Imperial Japan | 1941

"As capable as the Nakajima Shoki series of interceptors were, the aircraft were relegated to the defense of the Japanese homeland."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 02/01/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (meaning "Demon Queller" and codenamed "Tojo" by the Allies) was a single engine monoplane interceptor appearing in production throughout the war years. The system was designed with performance in mind and, as such, design focused more on a superior rate-of-climb and overall speed leaving other factors such as vision and maneuverability something to be desired. Despite their impressive fighter performance statistics, the Ki-44 was relegated to defense of the Japanese homeland as the Allied continually shrank Japanese territorial gains throughout the Pacific. Their heavy caliber armament did, however, proved mightily effective against the Boeing B-29 Superfortresses.

Development of the Ki-44 began in 1940 as a dedicated interceptor designed to a Japanese Army Air Force specification for a high speed platform with a good rate-of-climb. The design centered around the large Nakajima Ha-41 engine that had its origins as a bomber powerplant. The large engine was fitted into a streamlined fuselage design with a distinctly shortened and smallish tail assembly. The pilot's cockpit was positioned about midway on the upper portion of the fuselage. The engine sat some distance ahead of the pilot, offering some limitations to forward visibility particularly when taxiing the aircraft. The wings were low-mounted and positioned just forward of the cockpit and were designed with a small area making the Shoki a handful of an aircraft to land due to its high landing speeds. The initial prototype was airborne by August of 1940 and was showcased against an imported Messerschmitt Bf 109E model - the mainstay German Luftwaffe fighter in Europe - and proved superior to the German design in performance figures.

Trials for the Ki-44 were conducted in late 1941 with the first air group forming in December of that year. Homeland and territorial defense groups were formed thereafter in an attempt to protect vital industrial and oil positions from the aggression of Allied bomber groups attempting to cripple Japan from within. Suicide groups near Tokyo were also formed to combat B-29 Superfortresses. In all, some 12 air groups were allocated the Ki-44 Shoki in various defensive roles with the Japanese Air Force.

Power for the Ki-44-IIb was sponsored by a single Nakajima-brand Ha-109 radial engine delivering 1,519 horsepower. Performance specs included a top speed of 476 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 36,750 feet. A range of 1,060 was reported as was a rate-of-climb nearing 3,940 feet per minute. In all, these were impressive specifications for a dedicated single-seat interceptor of the time.

Standard armament of the Ki-44-IIb model centered around 4 x 12.7mm Ho-103 series heavy caliber machine guns. Two were mounted into the cowl and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blade, forcing this pair to have a lower rate-of-fire - reported at about 657 rounds-per-minute. Conversely, a second pair of 12.7mm machine guns of the same type were mounted one to a wing and offered up to 900 rounds-per-minute. Some 760 rounds of total 12.7mm ammunition were afforded to all guns.

Notable variants in the Shoki series included the base Ki-44 prototype, the Ki-44 Type I, the Ki-44 Type II, the Ki-44 II, Ki-44 IIc, the Ki-44 IIIa and the Ki-44 IIIb models. The ki-44 was the base prototype while the Ki-44 Type I was powered by the Nakajima Ha-41 series engine. The latter had a performance speed of 363 miles per hour and was armed with 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns and 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns. The Ki-44 Type II was fitted with the Nakajima Ha-109 engine and delivered up to 378 miles per hour performance. This version was fitted with 4 x 12.7mm Type I machine guns. he Ki-44 II was another prototype model, this fitted with a Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,520 horsepower. The Ki-44 IIc was the first variant that showcased heavy-duty firepower, these armed with 4 x 20mm Ho-3 series cannons or coupled as 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons with 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns. Cannon armament proved most effective against the high-altitude, well-defending Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. The Ki-44 IIIa sported 4 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and an engine delivering up to 2,000 horsepower. The Ki-44 IIIb was fitted with 2 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and 2 x 37mm Ho-203 cannons.

Manchukuo and Imperial Japan were wartime operators of the Shoki whereas China and Indonesia became operators of the type in post-war Asia. Production of the Ki-44 spanned from 1940 into 1944 to which some 1,225 examples were produced in total. The Ki-44 was eventually replaced by the Nakajima Ki-84 "Hayate" by the closing months of the war.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Nakajima Ki-44-IIb Shoki (Tojo) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft.
1 x Nakajima Ha-109 air-cooled radial piston engine developing 1,520 horsepower driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose in puller fashion.
376 mph
605 kph | 327 kts
Max Speed
36,745 ft
11,200 m | 7 miles
Service Ceiling
1,056 miles
1,700 km | 918 nm
Operational Range
3,940 ft/min
1,201 m/min
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Nakajima Ki-44-IIb Shoki (Tojo) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft.
28.9 ft
8.80 m
O/A Length
31.0 ft
(9.45 m)
O/A Width
10.7 ft
(3.25 m)
O/A Height
4,641 lb
(2,105 kg)
Empty Weight
6,603 lb
(2,995 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Tojo) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft .
Ki-44 Type I:
2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns
2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in wings

2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in engine cowl synchronized with propeller.
2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns in wings (1 to a wing).

4 x 20mm Ho-3 cannons OR 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns and 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons.
Notable series variants as part of the Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Tojo) family line.
Ki-44 - Used for both prototype designation and preproduction evaluation models.
Ki-44 Type I - Fitted with Nakajima Ha-41 engine of 1,250 horsepower; 2 x 7.7mm Type 89 machine guns and 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns.
Ki-44 Ia
Ki-44 Ib
Ki-44 Ic
Ki-44 Type II - Fitted with Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,440 horsepower; 4 x 12.7mm Type I machine guns.
Ki-44 II - Prototype Model; fitted with Nakajima Ha-109 engine of 1,520 horsepower.
Ki-44 IIa - Mark 2a Series Designation
Ki-44 IIb
Ki-44 IIc - Fitted with 4 x 20mm Ho-3 cannons OR 2 x 12.7mm Ho-103 machine guns and 2 x 40mm Ho-301 cannons.
Ki-44 IIIa - Mark 3a Series Designation; fitted with 2,000 horsepower powerplant; armament of 4 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons.
Ki-44 IIIb - Fitted with 2 x 20mm Ho-5 cannons and 2 x 37mm Ho-203 cannons.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Tojo). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 1,225 Units

Contractor(s): Nakajima Aircraft Company - Japanese Empire
National flag of China National flag of Indonesia National flag of modern Japan

[ Manchukuo; China; Imperial Japan; Indonesia ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (376mph).

Graph Average of 300 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Nakajima Ki-44 Shoki (Tojo) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Fighter / Interceptor Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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