Aviation & Aerospace - Airpower 2024 - Aircraft by Country - Aircraft Manufacturers Vehicles & Artillery - Armor 2024 - Armor by Country - Armor Manufacturers Infantry Small Arms - Warfighter 2024 - Small Arms by Country - Arms Manufacturers Warships & Submarines - Navies 2024 - Ships by Country - Shipbuilders U.S. Military Pay 2024 Military Ranks Special Forces by Country

AMX International AMX

Light Strike / Advanced Trainer Aircraft

Italy | 1989

"The AMX International was a consortium project handled by Italian and Brazilian aircraft design firms."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 04/09/2024 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The subsonic AMX International AMX (known as the "Gibli" to the Italian Air Force) was the result of cooperation between two Italian (Aeritalia - now Alenia - and Aermacchi) and one Brazilian (Embraer) aircraft firms. Development of the aircraft began with just the two Italian companies in 1978 after the Italian Air Force put forth a requirement for a advanced multi-role platform with inherent reconnaissance capabilities. This requirement was seen as an appropriate replacement for Italy's aging fleet of American-originated Lockheed F-104 "Starfighters" and Italian Aeritalia G.91 series aircraft. Determined to fulfill this requirement with an all-indigenous fighter design, Aermacchi and Aeritalia set to work on what would become the "AMX". Coming into the program in 1980, the Brazilian Air Force joined the venture to fulfill a similar local air force requirement. The aircraft were then produced under the "AMX International" brand label.

The AMX program progressed into a first flight on May 15th, 1984 - this prototype serving the Italians with the Brazilian prototype unveiled a year later. The major difference between the two aircraft designs lay in their avionics package which showed the customizability afforded to the AMX airframe as a whole - a promising side-effect becoming an export-friendly product on the world stage. The initial order was for 272 aircraft but this was later reduced to 136 due to budgetary constraints for both involved nations. Nevertheless, development continued with little in the way of technical setbacks. Official production-quality aircraft entered service in 1989 with frontline strength reached in 1990. Production of the AMX series broke down as Alenia (Aeritalia) handling up to 46.7% whilst Embraer took its 29.7% share and Aermacchi handled a 23.6% portion. Final assembly was managed locally in the respective countries.

Externally the AMX is given high-mounted monoplane wings, twin air intakes, and a single engine installation. Crew accommodations varied depending on the model in question and could either be a single pilot or pilot with systems operator seated in tandem. The latter served well the purpose of light strike or advanced jet training. Standard armament varied little between the Italian and the Brazilian types with the Italian version receiving a single 20mm General Electric internal, six-barrled, Gatling-style cannon and the Brazilian version being equipped with twin 30mm DEFA cannons. Four underwing hardpoints, a centerline hardpoint, and wingtip hardpoints all added to the inherent versatility of this relatively compact aircraft. Wingtip mounts were reserved for short-range air-to-air missiles but the other hardpoints were designed to carry variable ordnance loads from guided missiles, bombs, rocket pods, jettisonable fuel tanks for improved range, and reconnaissance pods or target laser designators.

The AMX with the Italians went on to see considerable operational service since its introduction - fighting as part of the U.N.-led "Allied Force" air campaign against Serbia and accounting for over 250 sorties for its part in the operation. The aircraft was fielded with advanced Israeli-made Elbit "Opher" imaging InfraRed (IR) guided drop bombs that proved to be as accurate as advertised. Among other ordnance fielded by the Italian AMX during the war were Mk 82, Mk 83, and Mk 84 conventional drop bombs to go along with "Paveway II" series Laser-Guided Bombs (LGBs).

Article Continues Below Advertisement...
Despite it not reaching a more impressive export total, the AMX proved itself a viable weapons delivery platform - considering its design by a consortium of different aircraft firms located on different continents. Export orders were to have been increased by way of a 1999 Venezuelan order for eight aircraft but the United States blocked its sale on the grounds that the aircraft contained some U.S. technology aboard - the American and Venezuelan governments at odds for many decades.

In its modern form, the AMX is powered by a single Rolls-Royce Spey 807 series (non-afterburning) turbofan engine of 11,030lbf. Maximum speed is 570 miles per hour with combat ranges out to 555 miles and ferry ranges out to 2,075 miles. Its service ceiling is in the 42,650 foot range with a rate-of-climb approaching 10,250 feet per minute.

205 AMXs have been produced with the final airframe arriving during 2002. Several marks make up the line:

The AMX-T is a two-seat advanced trainer and the AMT-ATA is a two-seat "Advanced Trainer Attack" model. The AMX-R (RA-1) is a reconnaissance-minded platform. The A-1M is a Brazilian upgraded variant while the A-11A and TA-11A are upgraded Italian marks. The A-11B designation is for Italian aircraft as is TA-11B.

The AMX-T two-seat advanced trainer achieved first flight in 1990. The A-11B makes up the stock of upgraded Italian AMXs from seen from 2006 onwards. In 2013, the Brazilian Air Force began receiving upgraded AMXs through a 43-batch initiative as the A-1M. These aircraft are equipped with Mectron SCP-01 series radar, FLIR, BR2 data links, Israeli Elbit navigation, and "all-glass" digital cockpits.

The A-1 in Italian service is slated for retirement along with the AV-8 Harrier and PANAVIA Tornado strike fighters as the Lockheed F-35 Lightning II arrives in ever-larger numbers. The Lighting II will be fielded with the Eurofighter Typhoon as Italy's proposed frontline "one-two punch".

Content ©MilitaryFactory.com; No Reproduction Permitted.

February 2019 - The AMX International AMX is service with the Italian Air Force is scheduled for be phased out in 2021. The fleet will be succeeded by the incoming Lockheed F-35 Lightning II strike fighter from the United States.

April 2024 - The Italian Air Force has completed retirement of its aging AMX fleet.

Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the AMX International AMX Light Strike / Advanced Trainer Aircraft.
1 x Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 807 non-afterburning turbofan engine developing 11,030 lb of thrust.
651 mph
1,047 kph | 565 kts
Max Speed
42,651 ft
13,000 m | 8 miles
Service Ceiling
345 miles
556 km | 300 nm
Operational Range
10,250 ft/min
3,124 m/min
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the AMX International AMX Light Strike / Advanced Trainer Aircraft.
43.4 ft
13.23 m
O/A Length
29.1 ft
(8.87 m)
O/A Width
14.9 ft
(4.55 m)
O/A Height
14,837 lb
(6,730 kg)
Empty Weight
28,660 lb
(13,000 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the AMX International AMX Light Strike / Advanced Trainer Aircraft .
1 x 20mm General Electric GE M61A1 Vulcan internal cannon (Italy) OR 2 x 30mm DEFA internal cannons (Brazil).

Mission-Specific Ordnance can include any of the following:

AIM-9 "Sidewinder" air-to-air missiles (wingtip mounted), MAA-1 "Piranha" air-to-air-missiles (wingtip mounted), Mk 82 bombs, Mk 83 bombs, Mk 84 bombs, Paveway II Laser-Guided Munitions, rocket pods, cluster bombs, "Skyshark" Munition Dispenser, or Elbit "Opher" imaging infra-red guided bomb.

Also Oude Delft Orpheus reconnaissance pod and CDLP laser-designator pod.
Notable series variants as part of the AMX International AMX family line.
AMX - Base Series Designation
AMX-ATA (Advanced Trainer Attack) - Tandem-Seat Model fitted with Elbit avionics package.
AMX-E - Tandem-Seat HARM-Capable Model; "Escort Jammer" model based on the AMX-T.
AMX-MLU - Mid-Life Update Model; fitted with redesigned radar system; FLIR capable; improved avionics package; NVG cockpit.
AMX-T - Based on the AMX-ATA model; fitted with Elbit avionics; digital cockpit.
A-1 - Brazilian Series Designation
A-1B - Brazilian Production Model
TA-1 - Brazilian Production Model
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the AMX International AMX. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 206 Units

Contractor(s): Aeritalia-Alenia; Aermacchi - Italy / Embraer - Brazil
National flag of Brazil National flag of Italy

[ Brazil; Italy ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 750mph
Lo: 375mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (651mph).

Graph Average of 563 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
1 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense DVIDS imagery gallery.
2 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense DVIDS imagery gallery.
3 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense DVIDS imagery gallery.
4 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense DVIDS imagery gallery.
5 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense DVIDS imagery gallery.
6 / 6
Image of the AMX International AMX
Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The AMX International AMX Light Strike / Advanced Trainer Aircraft appears in the following collections:
Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Scale Military Ranks U.S. DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols US 5-Star Generals WW2 Weapons by Country

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.

Part of a network of sites that includes Global Firepower, WDMMA.org, WDMMW.org, and World War Next.

©2024 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2024 (21yrs)