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Blackburn Buccaneer

Carrierborne Low-Altitude Strike Aircraft

United Kingdom | 1962

"South Africa joined the British Royal Navy and Royal Air Force as the only operators of the excellent Blackburn Buccaneer strike bomber."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 09/18/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Blackburn Buccaneer was a low-level, high-speed, carrier-borne strike aircraft utilized by the British Royal Air Force and its Royal Navy (South Africa proved the only foreign operator of the type). Designed to a Royal Navy requirement, the Buccaneer featured a crew of two seated in tandem, an internal weapons bay to complement the external stores and a tailcone that split vertically to act as a large-area airbrake. The prototype Buccaneer first flew on April 30th, 1958 and would become the lead to twenty total "NA-39" pre-production forms.

Beginning in 1962, the 40 initial production quality Buccaneers - designated as "S.Mk 1" - were delivered with de Havilland Gyron Junior 7,100lb thrust turbojet engines where as performance issues were then addressed with the 80 examples of the upcoming "S.Mk 2"mark to feature the Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 101 turbofan engine of 11,200lbs standard thrust. Blackburn Aircraft handled production of the first 10 of this type before manufacture shifted under the Hawker Siddeley Aviation brand label. Future innovations included use of rocket-assisted take-off (ROTA) for carrier operations, incorporating a Bristol Siddeley Stentor rocket motor of 8,000lbs thrust.

Overall design of the Buccaneer centered around a tubular fuselage with pointed nose cone and tapered empennage. Wings were monoplane assemblies and fitted high along the fuselage sides. The fuselage was straddled by a pair of circular engine nacelles with intakes at the front and exhaust rings at the rear. The empennage was capped by a "T" style tail assembly atop its vertical fin. The framed cockpit was well-forward in the design, offering good views of the action ahead. The undercarriage was of a conventional tricycle arrangement. An in-flight refueling probe broadened operational ranges.

Performance for the definitive S.Mk 2 models included a maximum speed of 667 miles per hour with a service range of 2,300 miles and service ceiling of 40,000 feet. When empty, the aircraft weighed 30,000lbs and could take-off under a 62,000lb load. Length was 63 feet, 5 inches with a wingspan of 44 feet and height of 16 feet, 3 inches.

As a dedicated strike platform, the Buccaneer was cleared to carry a plethora of air-to-surface weaponry including conventional drop bombs, anti-fortification missiles, anti-ship missiles and unguided rocket pods. The internal weapons bay was quite sizeable for an aircraft of this type and thusly forced external fuel pods to be utilized more often than not to help keep operational ranges acceptable. Modernization programs undoubtedly helped to extend the service life of the aircraft which held origins in the 1950s.

With the growing interest in smaller aircraft carriers for the future Royal Navy, the dimensionally large Buccaneer as a future fixture was somewhat in doubt. Beginning in 1969, the Royal Navy's Buccaneer inventory was dispersed to the Royal Air Force as S.Mk 2 production models were modified into land-based strike platforms as the "S.Mk 2A" (the RAF, now devoid of the cancelled TSR-2 bomber program, lacked a suitable replacement for its since-retired fleet of English Electric Canberras). Support for the Martel ant-radar/anti-ship missile was brought about through the "S.Mk 2B" variant for the RAF and 46 of this type existed. Existing Royal Navy S.2s were then brought up to the S.Mk 2A standard under the "S.Mk 2C" designation. Similarly, Royal Navy S.Mk 2s brought up to the S.Mk 2B standard (with Martel missile support) were designated as the "S.Mk 2D". At least 16 Buccaneers were delivered to the South African Air Force under the S.Mk 50 designation and made up 24 Squadron SAAF.

At least 12 Buccaneers were shipped to the Persian Gulf during the 1991 Gulf War. These were equipped with laser designation equipment that allowed use of laser-guided bombs for precision strikes. The platform provided high-level bombing capability for itself and other coalition aircraft (SEPECAT Jaguars and Panavia Tornados) and eventually took on 218 strike sorties in the conflict. The aircraft was formally removed from this service in February of 1991 and the last British Buccaneer was retired in 1994.

South Africa operated their Buccaneers beginning in 1965 and these were primarily served as anti-ship platforms but were also utilized in the ground attack role when necessary. As such, they could be outfitted with missiles, rocket pods and drop bombs as the situation required. Aircraft served in the Border War and were utilized to good effect while formal use of the Buccaneer by the SAAF was given up for good in 1991.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Blackburn Buccaneer Carrierborne Low-Altitude Strike Aircraft.
2 x Rolls-Royce Spey Mk.101 turbofan engines developing 11,100 lb of standard thrust each.
646 mph
1,040 kph | 562 kts
Max Speed
41,998 ft
12,801 m | 8 miles
Service Ceiling
1,108 miles
1,783 km | 963 nm
Operational Range
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Blackburn Buccaneer Carrierborne Low-Altitude Strike Aircraft.
63.4 ft
19.33 m
O/A Length
44.0 ft
(13.41 m)
O/A Width
29,800 lb
(13,517 kg)
Empty Weight
62,001 lb
(28,123 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Blackburn Buccaneer Carrierborne Low-Altitude Strike Aircraft .
Mission-specific armament included:

2 x "Martel" anti-ship missiles.
2 x "Sea Eagle" anti-ship missiles.

Up to 7,000 lb of conventional drop ordnance including 4,000 lb carried internally.
Notable series variants as part of the Blackburn Buccaneer family line.
Buccaneer - Base Series Name.
NA.39 - Pre-production designation; 20 examples produced.
S.Mk 1 - Initial Production Model of which forty were produced; fitted with 2 x de Havilland Gyron Junior 101 turbojet engines delivering 7,100lb of standard thrust.
S.Mk 2 - Improved production model of 1962 fitted with 2 x Rolls-Royce Spey Mk 101 turbofans; 84 produced - 10 by Blackburn and 74 by Hawker Siddeley.
S.Mk 2A - Royal Navy Buccaneers reallocated and modified for Royal Air Force usage.
S.Mk 2B - Improved S.Mk 2 Buccaneers for RAF with provision for Martel air-to-surface anti-ship missile systems; 49 examples produced from 1973 to 1977 (46 to the RAF, 3 for MoD weapons testing).
S.Mk 2C - Royal Navy aircraft modified to S.Mk 2A standard
S.Mk 2D - Royal Navy aircraft modified to S.Mk 2B standard with Martel missile support.
S.Mk 50 - South African model featuring Bristol Siddeley Stentor rocket motor for increased take-off performance; manually-folding wings; anti-ship/strike capability; 16 examples delivered (one loss to accident en route); operation from 1965 to 1991.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Blackburn Buccaneer. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 190 Units

Contractor(s): Blackburn / Hawker Siddeley - UK
National flag of South Africa National flag of the United Kingdom

[ South Africa; United Kingdom ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 750mph
Lo: 375mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (646mph).

Graph Average of 563 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Image of the Blackburn Buccaneer
Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.
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Image of the Blackburn Buccaneer
Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.
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Image of the Blackburn Buccaneer
Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Blackburn Buccaneer Carrierborne Low-Altitude Strike Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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