The AirCo DH.9 was a further revision of the DH.4 bomber - again headed by famous aviation engineer Geoffrey de Havilland. Design of the new aircraft was handled by the de Havilland company with serial production managed through the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, better known under the acronym of "AirCo" or "Airco". The model was first flown in July of 1917 and introduced into service that same year. It managed only a short post-war career as it was retired from notable service in 1920. 4,091 of the type were ultimately produced.
The DH.9 shared a few of the major design qualities found on the preceding DH.4 including the undercarriage, tail unit, and wings. The DH.9 differed from the DH.4 in that it positioned the gunner and pilot closer together to better communications between the two and was fitted with a more powerful engine. The new fuselage was also intended to streamline the aircraft and take away stresses from the engine. Initial tests revealed that the base DH.9 was simply too underpowered and not much of an upgrade over the DH.4 (which it was meant to replace) thus the system was redesigned as the DH.9A. The DH.9A model attempted to address performance issues and defensive drawbacks by incorporating a lengthened wingspan and a fixed forward-firing machine gun for the pilot. A trainable machine gun was found at the rear gunner/observer's cockpit for protecting the aircraft's critical "six" position.
Not a spectacular aircraft in any one regard, the DH.9 managed a rather poor service record in World War 1 with more losses due to mechanical and performance issues than actual enemy fire. Notable deficiencies in the series lay in its limited service ceiling, fuel consumption at altitudes higher than 10,000 feet, and general engine reliability. If there was one role that the DH.9 proved at least somewhat adequate in was in coastal patrol assignments when hunting down German U-boats - there was a reduced chance of running into enemy aircraft or ground-based fire in this role. Though generally inadequate over most fronts, the DH.9 was naturally more successful in poorly defended areas during the course of the war, this to be true in the Middle East Theater over Palestine and also over Macedonia.
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Aircraft Manufacturing Company Ltd (AirCo) / de Havilland - United Kingdom Manufacturer(s)
Afghanistan; Australia; Belgium; Bolivia; Canada; Chile; Denmark; Estonia; Greece; India; Ireland; Latvia; Netherlands; New Zealand; Paraguay; Peru; Poland; Romania; Saudi Arabia (Kingdom of Hejaz); Spain; South Africa; Soviet Union; Switzerland; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States Operators
1 x .303 Vickers machine gun in fixed, forward-firing mounting.
1 OR 2 x .303 Lewis machine gun(s) in rear cockpit position on trainable Scarff ring mounting.
External bomb load up to 460 lb (209 kg).
DH.9 - Base production model based on the earlier DH.4 with decreased area between pilot and gunner positions of which over 3,000 produced.
DH.9A - Improved powerplant
DH.9B - Civilian Conversion Model to accommodate pilot and two passengers.
DH.9C - Civilian Conversion Model to accommodate pilot and three passengers.
DH.9J - Updated powerplant (Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar III radial piston engine generating 385-hp); Pilot trainer.
DH.9J M'pala I - Conversion for South Africa fitted with Bristol Jupiter VI radial piston engine generating 450hp.
M'pala II - Conversion model for South Africa fitted with Bristol Jupiter VIII radial piston engine generating 480hp.
Mantis - Conversion model for South Africa fitted with Wolseley Viper piston engine generating 200hp.
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