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Curtiss XBTC (Model 96)


Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype


United States | 1945



"The Curtiss XBTC was intended for the USN during the World War 2 years with four ordered - just two were completed and one was lost to a crash."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/17/2021 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
By 1942, the world was at war with the United States committed to the fight in Africa, Europe, and the Pacific. The Pacific Theater required a major investment in over-water and on-water solutions and, for the attack role, the torpedo bomber and dive bomber were king. In the decade prior, the United States Navy (USN) shifted policy and accepted designs covering torpedo and bombing roles individually. However, during the war, it was seen that a combination design able to fulfill both roles was more tactically sound against the Empire of Japan's vaunted naval fleet.

In February 9th, 1942, the USN sought a new combination design and contracted with Curtiss Aeroplace and Motor Company to fulfill the requirement. The engine of choice became the Wright R-3350 air-cooled radial driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose and the usual crew of two or three was reduced to just one as technical advances and wartime theory offered simplification. To cover the bombing role, an internal bomb bay was required while a single torpedo (Mk 13-2 family) could be held externally along the ventral fuselage line. Two external hardpoints were also available for drop bombs. The structure of the new aircraft would have to satisfy the rigors and stresses inherent in the dive bombing action. Standard, fixed armament centered on 4 x 20mm automatic cannons for ground strafing and an possible air-to-air action the operator might encounter. For enhanced survivability, self-sealing fuel tanks were a must.

The performance specifications included an optimal operating range of 1,000 miles fully-laden. Range could increase to 1,500 miles with the optional fuel drop tanks.

Curtiss engineers moved on a pair of designs, the first fitting a conventional arrangement involving the R-3350 radial of 2,300 horsepower mated to a single three-bladed propeller unit at the nose and another housing the experimental Pratt & Whitney (PW) XR-4360-14 "Wasp Major" super-charged, water-injected radial of 3,000 horsepower driving a pair of three-bladed propellers in a contra-rotating arrangement. The result was the project "Model 96" for the company.

USN authorities liked what they saw in the promising attacker and contracted for both to be completed, each with their respective engine installations, to be known under experimental designations "XBTC-1" (Wright engine) and "XBTC-2" (Pratt & Whitney engine). The latter differed not only in engine and prop install but also in dimensions, being larger than its sister, and incorporated a Fowler flap (Model A wing) or duplex flap (Model B wing) arrangement in the wings. Dive brakes and edge slats also were standard.

Of note is that this Curtiss / USN marriage marked the first large scale commitment by the service in attempting to satisfy a multi-role attack platform when such ventures were typically reserved for fighter types.

The company initially moved fast on the agreement and delivered mockups before the end of 1942.Not all was right, however, for the Curtiss was deep in the American war effort and - coupled to the Army need for the Pratt & Whitney radial - the program began to stall into 1943 by which point the XBTC-1 initiative was dead before the end of the year by the Navy's decision. The service did, indeed, move forward with the XBTC-2 and contracted for two prototypes.

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The XBTC-1 saw renewed hope with the Army who pushed for the "XA-40" (detailed elsewhere on this site) but the service steadily moved away from single-engine attackers for the foreseeable future.

This did little to move the project along, especially when wartime roles were being gladly fulfilled by competing designs. As such, the slow-moving XBTC-2 project did not record a first flight until January 20th, 1945 and, by then, interest in the product waned. With the fall of Germany in May 1945 and Japan to follow in August, there proved no ongoing need in a stuffed post-war aircraft market. The XBTC program was, therefore, limited to just the two prototypes and this brought a formal end to the venture.

In testing, the first prototype (with its Model A wing), crashed on landing in March of 1945 but was salvageable (it was eventually passed on to the Naval Air Material Unit in August 1947 and scrapped.). The second prototype crashed due to an engine stall in March 1947.

As drawn up, the XBTC-2 was given the usual smooth, tapering fuselage with the framed canopy set over and ahead of midships. The engine took its place in the nose with the stacked propeller units just ahead. The tail incorporated a small-area, rounded unit with low-set horizontal planes. The mainplanes were set ahead of midships, given a wing-folding feature outside of the cannon installations, and tapering at the trailing edges. A tail-dragger, three-point stance made up the retractable undercarriage and an arrestor hook was buried in the lower aft of the tail unit.

The internal bomb bay allowed for up to 2,000lb of ordnance to be carried, this in addition to any externally-held munitions.

By World War 2 standards, the XBTC-2 certainly looked the part of a modern attacker and would have made a greater imprint had it arrived earlier in the fighting.

From the Wasp Major engine, coupled to the smooth design features, the aircraft could manage a maximum speed of 375 miles-per-hour while cruising at speeds closer to 185 mph. Range was out to 1,600 nautical miles (1,836 miles), and its service ceiling reached 26,200 feet. Rate-of-climb was a useful 2,250 feet-per-minute.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Curtiss XBTC-2 Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype.
1 x Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major air-cooled radial piston engine developing 3,000 horsepower driving 2 c Three-bladed propeller units at the nose in contra-rotating arrangement.
Propulsion
376 mph
605 kph | 327 kts
Max Speed
190 mph
305 kph | 165 kts
Cruise Speed
26,247 ft
8,000 m | 5 miles
Service Ceiling
1,836 miles
2,955 km | 1,596 nm
Operational Range
2,250 ft/min
686 m/min
Rate-of-Climb
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Curtiss XBTC-2 Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype.
1
(MANNED)
Crew
39.0 ft
11.90 m
O/A Length
50.0 ft
(15.25 m)
O/A Width
13.0 ft
(3.95 m)
O/A Height
13,415 lb
(6,085 kg)
Empty Weight
21,660 lb
(9,825 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Curtiss XBTC (Model 96) Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype provided across 2 hardpoints.
PROPOSED:
4 x 20mm automatic cannons in the wings (inboard of wing-fold hinge).

Up to 2,000lb of conventional drop bombs (2 x 1,000lb bombs) in the internal bomb bay or a single torpedo held under the fuselage. Also optional provision for external bomb mountings and jettisonable fuel tanks.


X X X

X
X
X
Hardpoints Key:


Centerline
Wingroot(L)
Wingroot(R)
Wing
Wingtip
Internal
Not Used
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Curtiss XBTC (Model 96) family line.
XBTC - Base Project Designation.
XBTC-1 - Proposed prototype carrying the Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclone engine; not ordered.
XBTC-2 - Prototype model fitting the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major air-cooled radial engine; two examples completed with Model A and Model B wing structures, respectively; First prototype scrapped, second prototype lost to accident.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Curtiss XBTC (Model 96). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 2 Units

Contractor(s): Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company - USA
National flag of the United States

[ United States (cancelled) ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (376mph).

Graph Average of 300 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
2
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
WWI
Interwar
WWII
ColdWar
Postwar
Modern
Future
1 / 1
Image of the Curtiss XBTC (Model 96)
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
GROUND ATTACK
ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE
ANTI-SHIP
MARITIME / NAVY
X-PLANE
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Similar
Developments of similar form-and-function, or related, to the Curtiss XBTC (Model 96) Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype.
Going Further...
The Curtiss XBTC (Model 96) Carrierborne Torpedo / Dive Bomber Prototype appears in the following collections:
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