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Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I)


Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype


Imperial Germany | 1917



"The Friedrichshafen D.I failed to impress with its two prototypes and was thus abandoned during 1917."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 03/13/2021 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The one-off Friedrichshafen FF43 floatplane fighter prototype (detailed elsewhere on this site) failed to impressed German Navy authorities back in 1916 but the service thought enough of the base design to order it in three prototype land-based forms. As such, the FF43 lost its twin floats (which permitted waterborne landings and take-offs) and was given a traditional "tail-dragger" wheeled arrangement. Three aircraft - known internally as "FF46" - were contracted for in September 1916 by authorities to serve under the "D.I" designation.

Like the FF.43 before it, the FF46 carried the proven Mercedes D.III V6 water-cooled inline piston engine of 160 horsepower, this used to drive a two-bladed, fixed-pitched wooden propeller at the nose in tractor fashion. The fighter seated one in an open-air cockpit and relied on a single-bay, unequal-span wing mainplane arrangement with parallel struts. The upper wing member was kept close to the fuselage and had a section of its trailing edge cut out to enhance pilot vision around his aircraft. Armament would centered on 2 x 7.92mm LMG 08/15 machine guns in fixed, forward-firing mountings over the nose - synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades as was common to the time.

Despite the order for three total aircraft, just two prototypes would eventually be realized. The first was given vertical cabane-style struts at the wing members while the second offering differed in its implantation of splayed strut supports in an effort to further enhance pilot vision.

The FF.46 was not formally tested by the Germans until April of 1917 by which point the design had little to offer over its competitors. As such, no serial production was undertaken of the type and the two examples were later scrapped.

The FF.46 was the first in several biplane fighters that Friedrichshafen would offer during the war - contracts proving to be elusive. The company went defunct in 1923 and its production center taken over by Dornier.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Friedrichshafen D.I Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype.
1 x Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 160 horsepower driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
Propulsion
109 mph
175 kph | 94 kts
Max Speed
15,502 ft
4,725 m | 3 miles
Service Ceiling
217 miles
350 km | 189 nm
Operational Range
550 ft/min
168 m/min
Rate-of-Climb
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Friedrichshafen D.I Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype.
1
(MANNED)
Crew
21.2 ft
6.45 m
O/A Length
29.7 ft
(9.05 m)
O/A Width
9.5 ft
(2.90 m)
O/A Height
1,510 lb
(685 kg)
Empty Weight
1,984 lb
(900 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype .
PROPOSED:
2 x 7.92mm LMG 08/15 air-cooled, belt-fed machine guns over the nose in fixed, forward-firing mountings synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I) family line.
FF.46 - Base series / company designation; two flyable prototypes completed and tested.
D.I - In-service designation of the FF.46.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 2 Units

Contractor(s): Flugzeugbau Friedrichshafen - German Empire
National flag of the German Empire

[ German Empire (cancelled) ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (109mph).

Graph Average of 90 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
2
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
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Future
1 / 1
Image of the Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I)
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT
X-PLANE
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Similar
Developments of similar form-and-function, or related, to the Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype.
Going Further...
The Friedrichshafen FF.46 (D.I) Single-Seat, Single-Engine Biplane Fighter Prototype appears in the following collections:
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