Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Small Arms Warships & Submarines Military Ranks Military Pay Chart (2024) Special Forces
Aviation / Aerospace

Avro Type D

Experimental Biplane / Floatplane Aircraft [ 1911 ]

The Avro Type D became the first biplane aircraft to be designed by Alliott Verdon Roe and flew for the first time in April of 1911.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 04/12/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The barriers of flight required much experimentation in the early years and it fell to forward-thinking individuals like Alliott Verdon Roe (1877-1958) of Britain to push the field along. The Avro "Type D" was a product of the pre-World War 1 period and involved seven aircraft built to an experimental standard, utilizing a biplane wing configuration and single engine mounting. A first-flight was recorded on April 1st, 1911 (with one C.H. Pixton at the controls) and the series went on to see airworthy service into 1913.

As built, the Type D seated a sole pilot and could carry a single passenger in open-air cockpits. Structurally, the aircraft has an overall length of 28 feet, a wingspan of 31 feet, and a height of 9.1 feet. Gross weight reached 500lb. Power was derived from a single Green C.4 4-cylinder inline piston engine outputting 35 horsepower and used to drive a two-bladed propeller at the nose. Maximum achievable speeds reached near 50 miles-per-hour.

The aircraft's configuration had the three-bayed biplane wing members seated well-forward of midships and, with the engine at the nose, concentrated the aircraft's weight forward. The crew seating was aft of the engine. The wing mainplanes were joined to one another by way of parallel struts and cabling was used for strengthening as well as to control surfaces in-flight. The tail encompassed a skeletal stem-like member emanating from the rear of the cockpit area and terminating in a single-finned unit with horizontal planes. The undercarriage was typical of the time - multi-wheeled (multi-spoked bicycle-style tires), fixed, and joined to landing skids.

The arrival of the Type D marked A.V. Roe's first venture into a biplane-winged flying machine - previous attempts centering on triplanes and other multi-winged developments.

The aircraft's first-flight in April of 1911 revealed a relatively controllable, responsive aircraft - proving the design sound. Following additional successful flights, the design was sold off to Commander Oliver Schwann who commanded the airship "Hermione".

At this point in the Type D's flying career, she was reworked as a floatplane to which Commander Schwann revised the design by adding a skin to the rear fuselage area and working in a slightly modified tail unit. Instead of the typical wheel/skid undercarriage, twin floats of various types were trialed and, on November 18th, 1911, the Type D took off in its new guise - marking the first time a floatplane went airborne from British waters. The following year, the aircraft fell under ownership of the Royal Aircraft Factory and, following modifications of their own, flew under the designation of H.R.E.3. In 1913, it was reconfigured, yet again, to become a land-based flyer. This marked the last known actions involving the Type D design as Europe moved on to become embroiled in The Great War (1914-1918) - which furthered the cause of aviation considerably heading into the 1920s.

Of the seven Type D's constructed, one model was modified as a racer with a 2-foot extension of the fuselage, reduced-span lower wing members, and reworked radiator system. Additionally, the original Green engine was succeeded by an ENF Type F model outputting a greater 60 horsepower while still turning a two-bladed wooden propeller unit at the nose. The changes made for a fast-yet-heavy aircraft which crashed during a trial run from an altitude of 150 feet or so - the pilot being uninjured in the action.©MilitaryFactory.com
Note: The above text is EXCLUSIVE to the site www.MilitaryFactory.com. It is the product of many hours of research and work made possible with the help of contributors, veterans, insiders, and topic specialists. If you happen upon this text anywhere else on the internet or in print, please let us know at MilitaryFactory AT gmail DOT com so that we may take appropriate action against the offender / offending site and continue to protect this original work.


Avro (A.V.Roe) - UK
United Kingdom
Operators National flag of the United Kingdom
Service Year
United Kingdom
National Origin
Project Status

Land-based or shipborne capability for operating over-water in various maritime-related roles while supported by allied naval surface elements.
Aircraft developed for the role of prototyping, technology demonstration, or research / data collection.

28.1 ft
(8.55 meters)
31.0 ft
(9.45 meters)
9.2 ft
(2.80 meters)
397 lb
(180 kilograms)
Empty Weight
507 lb
(230 kilograms)
Maximum Take-Off Weight
+110 lb
(+50 kg)
Weight Difference

1 x Green C.4 4-cylinder inline piston engine developing 35 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
48 mph
(78 kph | 42 knots)
Max Speed

MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030


Type D - Base Series Designation; seven examples completed.

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for Special Forces
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Ukranian-Russian War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft


1 / 1
Image of the Avro Type D
Image copyright www.MilitaryFactory.com; No Reproduction Permitted.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Chart Military Ranks DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content; site is 100% curated by humans.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org (World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft), WDMMW.org (World Directory of Modern Military Warships), SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane, and MilitaryRibbons.info, cataloguing military medals and ribbons. Special Interest: RailRoad Junction, the locomotive encyclopedia.

©2023 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2023 (20yrs)