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Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback)

Multirole / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

China | 1980

"J-8 development overcame many setbacks - most of these being political in nature - and maintains an active presence in the Chinese attack fleet."

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 07/08/2022 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Shenyang J-8 series (NATO codename of "Finback") was an indigenous Chinese multi-role fighter design appearing in 1980. As China was already in the habit of purchasing Soviet equipment during the Cold War years, it was only natural that the design of the "Finback" closely mimic that of past Soviet creations for sheer simplicity in both development and production. The new design took on facets of Soviet-inspired machines such as the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 "Fishbed" and Sukhoi Su-15 "Flagon" aircraft. It should be noted that the Shenyang-produced Finback was an aircraft whose origins began as far back as the late 1960s, delayed by the upcoming Cultural Revolution in China - along with those local political events that seemingly delay important technological advancements. The "Revolution" would force the Finback project to develop its wings in a slow methodical effort, leaving the aircraft to officially join the ranks of the Chinese Air Force by 1980 - spanning some 10 years of development.

Design was conventional and very similar to past Russian aircraft offerings. The cockpit was situated forward in the long-nosed fuselage fitted with a conical nose cone featuring straight-faced fuselage sides. Intakes for the twin engines were fitted to either side of the body and positioned just aft of the cockpit, affording the pilot a relatively good all-around view. Wings were low monoplane arrangements with extremely sharp angles in much the same design facet that the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 "Fishbed" utilized. The empennage consisted of a traditional arrangement of elevators along a horizontal plane and a single vertical tail surface over the twin engine exhausts aft. Externally, the J-8 followed the Sukhoi Su-15's external design while much of the internal technology was based on the provided Soviet material as related to the MiG-21. The end product, therefore, held no true surprises when one considers the heavy Soviet involvement and influence in the Chinese design.

Armament was consistent with the J-8's Soviet pedigree and features a variety of short- and medium-range air-to-air missile systems. The addition of a semi-active anti-radar missile no doubt increased the type's potency as did its ability to carry air-to-air rocket and air-to-ground cannon pods for close-in work. Conventional drop bombs are also part of the cleared munitions capabilities that effectively evolved the J-8 series into a multi-role performer. Standard armament was a single 23mm cannon, this naturally based on an original Soviet design.

In active service since 1980, the J-8 series as a whole has since been revamped a number of times to spawn a number of variants. The base J-8 (NATO codename of "Finback-A") was strictly a day fighter whose production totals were extremely limited. The J-8 "Series I" became the first Finback of quantity, seeing some 100 total examples produced and also taking on the name of "Finback-A" in NATO. Series-I Finbacks sported a Sichuan SR-4 series radar system, a one-piece canopy and some minor airframe refinements.

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The J-8E became an improved J-8I model while the JZ-8 (or J-8R) was billed as a dedicated reconnaissance platform. The J-8ACT was used as a fly-by-wire developmental model designation.

J-8II ("Finback-B") featured a nose-mounted radar assembly, deleting the MiG-21-style nose-mounted intake in favor of lateral-mounted ones (ala the MiG-23 "Flogger"). The ventral side fitted a folding fin and the canopy was manufactured as a two-piece system. The J-8 IIB was naturally billed as an improved J-8II, also taking on the NATO codename of "Finback-B", and fitting twin WP-13AII turbojet engines and a 23mm Type 23-III series cannon. Again, fly-by-wire developmental models were represented by the J-8II-BW2/J-8IIACT. The J-8 IID sported an in-flight refueling probe.

The "II-series" was well represented on the world market by the inclusion of the export-friendly J-8IIM / F-8IIM based on the J-8B production model. These versions fitted WP13B turbojet engines capable of 15,432lbs of thrust. Other refinements included a Soviet Phazotron Zhuk-8 II pulse Doppler radar system, an updated cockpit and integrated GPS navigation.

"Peace Pearl" J-8II was a proposed joint American-Chinese effort to mate the J-8 II production model with US avionics, APG-66 type radar system and ejection seat. The events at Tiananmen Square nixed this project foray.

Other improved Finbacks appeared in the mold of the J-8IIH, J-8IIF and J-8IIM models, each differing slightly. The J-8III fitted WP-14 engines with improved radar capability, a digital fire-control solution and a revised cockpit (with multi-function displays) and canopy. The F-8 was yet-another series of technology demonstrators, with this model utilizing an integrated digital fly-by-wire control system.

The J-8 series have served under the air force and naval branches of China and it will continue to appear in active service until the new generation of indigenous Chinese multi-role aircraft come online in quantity. At least 325 Finbacks were known to have been produced.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Shenyang J-8 II (Finback) Multirole / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft.
2 x Liyang (Guizhou) WP13A II turbojets with afterburner developing 14,815 lb of thrust.
1,453 mph
2,338 kph | 1,262 kts
Max Speed
66,273 ft
20,200 m | 13 miles
Service Ceiling
1,367 miles
2,200 km | 1,188 nm
Operational Range
39,370 ft/min
12,000 m/min
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Shenyang J-8 II (Finback) Multirole / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft.
70.8 ft
21.59 m
O/A Length
30.6 ft
(9.34 m)
O/A Width
17.7 ft
(5.41 m)
O/A Height
21,649 lb
(9,820 kg)
Empty Weight
39,242 lb
(17,800 kg)
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback) Multirole / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft .
1 x 23mm cannon

Mission-specific armament may include:

PL-2B infrared guided air-to-air missiles
PL-7 medium-range semi-active radar-guided air-to-air missiles
Air-to-air rockets (pods)
Air-to-surface rockets (pods)
R-77 air-to-air missiles
R-27R1 air-to-air missiles
Conventional drop bombs
Notable series variants as part of the Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback) family line.
J-8 ?Finback-A? - Initial Production Model batch of which only a few were constructed; Day Fighter.
J-8 I ?Finback-A? - Improved All-Weather J-8 model of which roughly 100 were reported to have been produced; Fitted with Sichuan SR-4 radar system; minor airframe improvements; one-piece canopy.
J-8E ? Upgraded J-8 I Model
JZ-8 (J-8R) ? Dedicated Reconnaissance Model based on either J-8 or J-8I.
J-8ACT ? Fly-by-Wire Developmental Model
J-8II ?Finback-B? - Nose-mounted radar assembly; lateral air intakes introduced; ventral folding fin; two-piece canopy is introduced.
J-8IIB ?Finback-B? ? ?Improved? J-8II; fitted with 2 x WP-13AII turbojet engines; 23mm Type 23-III cannon.
J-8II-BW2 / J-8IIACT ? Fly-by-Wire Developmental Model
J-8 IID ?Finback-B? - Based on J-8 II model but provisioning for inflight refueling being added.
F-8II - Export Variant Model Designation of the J-8 II.
J-8IIM / F-8IIM ? Export Version of J-8B Model; improved WP13B turbojet engines capable of 15,432lbs of thrust; fitted with Phazotron Zhuk-8 II pulse Doppler radar system; modernized cockpit systems and ergonomics; GPS navigation system.
"Peace Pearl" J-8II - Abandoned program where the J-8 II was to be fitted with US-produced avionics, ejection seat system and APG-66 radar system; program terminated following the Tiananmen Square massacre.
J-8IIH / J-8H ? 2 x WP-13B engines; improved radar; redesigned canopy; improved weapons load variation.
J-8IIF / J-8F ? 2 x WP-13BII engines; inflight refueling capable; improved radar.
J-8IIM ? Upgraded J-8IIF Model Series; improved radar; improved air-to-air and air-to-surface capabilities.
J-8III / J-8C ? 2 x WP-14 engines; improved radar; redesigned canopy; digital fire-control system; multi-function displays.
F-8 Demonstrator - Featuring integrated digital computer-controlled fly-by-wire controlling.
J-8T - Advanced J-8 currently under development.
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 325 Units

Contractor(s): Shenyang / Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC)- China
National flag of China

[ China ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 1500mph
Lo: 750mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (1,453mph).

Graph Average of 1,125 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Image of the Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback)
Image from the Russian Ministry of Defense.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Shenyang (AVIC) J-8 / J-8 II (Finback) Multirole / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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