Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Small Arms Warships & Submarines Military Ranks Military Pay Chart (2024)
Aviation / Aerospace

Hanriot HD.3

Twin-Seat Biplane Fighter [ 1917 ]

Fewer than 100 of the Hanriot HD.3 series biplane fighters were built by France for the fighting of World War 1.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 01/27/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

Hanriot of France developed its single-seat, single-engine HD.1 fighting biplane of World War 1 (1914-1918) for service beginning in mid-1916. While passed on by the French Air Force it went on to stock the inventories of several foreign players of the period including the United States, the Kingdom of Italy, and Belgium. In due course, the same design was outfitted with floats and successfully tested to become the in-service HD.2 (detailed elsewhere on this site) and this form went on to be accepted by the French Navy and, to a lesser extent, the United States Navy. By the fall of 1917, the company was already hard at work on an all-new, twin-seat, single-engine biplane fighter - this to become the "HD.3".

A prototype was made ready before the end of the year and continued Hanriot's experience in biplane fighter development. The engine-of-choice became the Salmson (Canton-Unne) 9Za radial piston engine of 260 horsepower, this used to drive a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose. The biplane wing members were of equal span with single-bays, braced by a conventional parallel strut arrangement and the two of crew sat in tandem, open-air cockpits, the rear gunner's position raised slightly to afford better vision towards the rear of the aircraft. Armament centered on 2 x 7.7mm Vickers Machine Guns in fixed, forward-firing mounts (synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades) managed by the pilot and 2 x 7.7mm Lewis Machine Guns on a trainable mounting in the rear cockpit for the dedicated machine gunner. The undercarriage consisted of a conventional two-wheeled/tailskid arrangement for ground-running.

The French Air Service was sold enough on the design that it contracted for 120 in an initial production order during April 1918 when there was still a great need for new advanced fighters to match new German types in turn. Another batch order, this time by the French Navy, added 180 to the number though the Armistice of November 1918 limited the design's reach and production totals with just seventy-five eventually realized for the French Air Service inventory and just a few of the type to reach the French Navy.

Development of the design continued for a time later resulting in the "HD.3bis" night-fighter prototype - with thicker mainplanes and enlarged control surfaces - and the "HD.4", another one-off prototype having twin-floats fitted for on-water service. The related "HD.9 Ap.1" was a dedicated photoreconnaissance mount of which ten were evaluated by the French beginning in November of 1918.

In all, only about ninety or so HD.3 aircraft actually saw the light of day - the end of the war bringing an abrupt end to this capable biplane fighter. The only other notable operator of the series became the Kingdom of Italy where the HD.3 went on to serve with the Aeronautica Militare.©MilitaryFactory.com
Note: The above text is EXCLUSIVE to the site www.MilitaryFactory.com. It is the product of many hours of research and work made possible with the help of contributors, veterans, insiders, and topic specialists. If you happen upon this text anywhere else on the internet or in print, please let us know at MilitaryFactory AT gmail DOT com so that we may take appropriate action against the offender / offending site and continue to protect this original work.


Service Year

France national flag graphic

Not in Service.


National flag of France National flag of Italy National flag of the Kingdom of Italy France; Kingdom of Italy
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.

22.8 ft
(6.95 m)
29.5 ft
(9.00 m)
9.8 ft
(3.00 m)
Empty Wgt
1,676 lb
(760 kg)
2,601 lb
(1,180 kg)
Wgt Diff
+926 lb
(+420 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Hanriot HD.3 C.2 production variant)
Installed: 1 x Salmson (Canton-Unne) 9Za 9-cylinder water-cooled radial piston engine developing 260 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose.
Max Speed
119 mph
(192 kph | 104 kts)
18,701 ft
(5,700 m | 4 mi)
311 mi
(500 km | 270 nm)
800 ft/min
(244 m/min)

♦ MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030

(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the Hanriot HD.3 C.2 production variant. Performance specifications showcased above are subject to environmental factors as well as aircraft configuration. Estimates are made when Real Data not available. Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database or View aircraft by powerplant type)
2 x 0.303 Vickers Machine Guns in fixed, forward-firing mountings synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
2 x 0.303 Lewis Machine Guns in trainable mounting at rear cockpit.

Supported Types

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun

(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)
Hardpoint Mountings: 0

HD.3 - Base Series Designation.
HD.3 C.2 - Base Production model.
HD.3bis CN.2 - Nightfighter prototype form; revised wing and control surfaces; single example completed.
HD.4 - Floatplane variant of the HD.3 C.2; single example completed.
HD.9 Ap.1 - Single-seat photographic reconnaissance variant.

General Assessment
Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
Overall Rating
The overall rating takes into account over 60 individual factors related to this aircraft entry.
Rating is out of a possible 100 points.
Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (119mph).

Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Hanriot HD.3 C.2 operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
Max Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected above are altitude, speed, and range.
Aviation Era Span
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing era cross-over of this aircraft design.
Unit Production (90)
Compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian).

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Ukranian-Russian War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft

Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective aerial campaigns / operations / aviation periods.

Images Gallery

1 / 1
Image of the Hanriot HD.3
Image from the Public Domain.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Chart Military Ranks DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content; site is 100% curated by humans.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org (World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft), WDMMW.org (World Directory of Modern Military Warships), SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane, and MilitaryRibbons.info, cataloguing military medals and ribbons. Special Interest: RailRoad Junction, the locomotive encyclopedia.

©2023 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2023 (20yrs)