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Hannover CL.III

Twin-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft (1917)

Aviation / Aerospace

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The Hannover CL.III was a direct evolution of the earlier CL.II and saw production figures exceed 600 units in all.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 07/31/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
Even as the CL.II (detailed elsewhere on this site) by Hannoversche Waggonfabrik AG was making its way to German squadrons during World War 1 (1914-1918), the company was already evolving the design under the designation of "CL.III". The engine-of-choice switched from the original's Argus As.III of 180 horsepower to the proven Mercedes D.III water-cooled engine of 160 horsepower - the change promising greater performance power at altitude. Several measures were also enacted to reduce the type's operating weight and various sections were reinforced or revised. The resulting biplane fighter saw total production reach 617 units with the German Empire and some post-war use was had by the nations of Latvia and the newly-founded Soviet Union.

The aircraft carried over other established qualities of the CL.II that came before it: the unequal-span biplane wing members (single bay, parallel struts), tail-dragger undercarriage, and tandem seating for its crew of two (pilot in front, gunner/observer at the rear). Armament was increased from two 7.92mm machine guns (one forward, one aft) to three machine guns: 2 x 7.92mm machine guns now featured at the rear cockpit emplacement.

Dimensions included a running length of 24.9 feet, a wingspan of 38.4 feet, and a height of 9 feet. Empty weight reached 1,580 lb against an MTOW of 2,400 lb.

The CL.III was approved on February 23rd, 1918 and a serial production order for 200 units then followed by the German Air Service with first-deliveries tagged for March of that year. However, there proved a shortage of the in-demand Mercedes D.III engines which resulted in just eighty of the aircraft featuring entering service with this powerplant - the remainder were equipped with the original Argus As.III of 180 horsepower and these became the "CL.IIIa" in service. The engines were license-built by Opel and designated "As.III(O)" to mark the origin.

With this engine in place, the aircraft could manage a maximum speed of 103 miles-per-hour, reach an altitude of 24,600 feet, and climb at 620 feet-per-minute while holding a mission endurance of three hours.

The CL.IIIa proved itself the definitive production mark of the series, seeing combat service from entry in April 1918 up until the end of the war in November of 1918 (the 'Armistice') - though by this point the capable fighters were being used in the ground-attack role to help delay Allied advances. At least one other designation emerged as the "CL.IIIb" and this was to feature the NAG C.III engine of 185 horsepower. For this work, a single experimental model, the "CL.IIIc", was to serve as a testbed while also sporting a two-bay biplane wing arrangement.

Despite the signing of the Armistice of 1918 to end the war in full, Hannover continued serial production of the aircraft for a short time later, adding another 100 CL.III and another 38 CL.IIIa forms.


Service Year

Imperial Germany national flag graphic
Imperial Germany

Not in Service.


Hannoversche Waggonfabrik / Opel - German Empire
National flag of the German Empire National flag of the Soviet Union German Empire; Latvia (post-war); Soviet Union (post-war)
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.
Close-Air Support (CAS)
Developed to operate in close proximity to active ground elements by way of a broad array of air-to-ground ordnance and munitions options.
Intelligence-Surveillance-Reconnaissance (ISR), Scout
Surveil ground targets / target areas to assess environmental threat levels, enemy strength, or enemy movement.

24.9 ft
(7.58 m)
38.4 ft
(11.70 m)
9.2 ft
(2.80 m)
Empty Wgt
1,576 lb
(715 kg)
2,381 lb
(1,080 kg)
Wgt Diff
+805 lb
(+365 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Hannover CL.IIIa production variant)
Installed: 1 x Argus As.III 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 180 horsepower and driving a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose.
Max Speed
103 mph
(165 kph | 89 kts)
24,606 ft
(7,500 m | 5 mi)
311 mi
(500 km | 926 nm)
620 ft/min
(189 m/min)

♦ MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030

(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the Hannover CL.IIIa production variant. Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database. View aircraft by powerplant type)
1 x 7.92mm Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun in fixed, forward-facing mounting.
2 x 7.92mm Parabellum MG14 machine guns in trainable mounting at rear cockpit.

Supported Types

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun

(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)
Hardpoint Mountings: 0

CL.III - Base Series Designation; powered by Mercedes D.III engine; 80 examples completed.
CL.IIIa - Powered by Argus A.III inline piston engine of 180 horsepower; production by Opel.
CL.IIIb - Proposed production form to be powered by NAG C.III engine of 185 horsepower.
CL.IIIC - Testbed form with revised wing mainplanes with twin bays and NAG engine.

General Assessment

Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
Overall Rating
The overall rating takes into account over 60 individual factors related to this aircraft entry.
Rating is out of a possible 100 points.
Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (103mph).

Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Hannover CL.IIIa operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
Max Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Design Balance
The 3 qualities we look at for a balanced aircraft design are altitude, speed, and range.
Aviation Era Span
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing era cross-over of this aircraft design.
Unit Production (617)
This entry's total production compared against the most-produced military and civilian aircraft types in history (Ilyushin IL-2 and Cessna 172, respectively).

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