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Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4)


Twin-Engine Heavy Bomber Aircraft


Soviet Union | 1929



"Several hundred TB-1 heavy bombers were produced by Tupolev OKB during the inter-war period leading up to World War 2."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/26/2017 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The Russian Civil War pushed the Russian Empire out of World War 1 (1914-1918) and lasted until October of 1922 to which the Soviet Empire emerged from its ruins. From the remnants of the Imperial Russian Air Service was also formed the air branch of the Soviets recognized rather simply as the "Soviet Air Force". During the middle of 1924, the service called on local ingenuity to fulfill a long-range heavy bomber need and this resulted in the Tupolev concern taking the lead on the project.

The design would be a large undertaking for the recovering nation, powered by multiple engines and requiring the attention of multiple crewmen. All-metal construction (to include Duralumin corrugated skinning influenced by Hugo Junker's earlier work) would give it a modern appearance and advanced capabilities for the period. The end result was the Tupolev TB-1 by Andrei Tupolev - known to the company as the "ANT-4".

This aircraft became the largest all-metal aircraft to be constructed in the Soviet Union up to that point when it was unveiled in 1925. The selected engine series was the British Napier "Lion" of which two would be fitted to the wings (one per wing). A low-set monoplane wing mainplane was selected and a traditional single-finned tail unit used. A stepped cockpit was fitted at front of the slab-sided fuselage. A tail-dragger undercarriage arrangement was used.

A first-flight was recorded on November 26th of that year. After successful evaluation of the system it was ordered into serial production as the "TB-1".

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Internally, the bomber was crewed by six. Structurally it held a length of 59 feet with a wingspan of 94.1 feet and a height of 16.8 feet. Empty weight was 10,000lb with a Maximum Take-Off-Weight (MTOW) of 15,015lb. Production forms were powered by the M-17 V-12 liquid-cooled inline piston engine developing 680 horsepower - these were licensed-built BMW VI series V-12 engines.

Performance-wise the aircraft was able to reach speeds of 110 miles per hour and comfortably cruise at nearly 100 miles per hour. Range was out to 620 miles and its service ceiling was 15,845 feet. Rate-of-climb was 595 feet-per-minute.

For point defense, the bomber was outfitted with 6 x 7.62mm Degtyaryov (DA) Machine Guns fitted at various positions about the frame. Provision was made for up to 2,205lb of conventional drop ordnance to be carried.

After completion of two prototypes, the TB-1's arrival as an operational weapon system was slow as there proved logistical issues in obtaining the required engines (the original Napier Lions) and aluminum. Serial production, therefore, did not begin until 1929 and lasted until 1932 by which point a total of 216 aircraft would be completed (not counting the two prototypes). Most of the lot were completed with a wheeled undercarriage though some sixty-six emerged with floats to serve on water (in the TB-1P torpedo bomber role). ANT-4bis became a third prototype while the G-1 designation marked designated transport version of the bomber.

The first available example was delivered for civilian service and flew from Moscow to New York City as a newsreel initiative. The voyage took 137 total flight hours to complete but nonetheless caused a sensation. From this point forward deliveries to the Soviet Air Force commenced and it soon became the service's standardized "heavy". The aircraft went on to serve the Air Force, Soviet Naval Aviation and passenger carrier Aeroflot before it met its end.

The TB-1 also became the focus of Soviet "parasite fighter" experimentation in which the large aircraft was to serve as mothership to smaller, recoverable fighters launched from her hold. This project was known by the name of "Zveno" and involved a pair of Tupolev I-4 biplane fighters.

The TB-1 series was superseded by the more-modern TB-3, also by Tupolev, in 1932. Eight hundred eighteen of this design followed.

Many TB-1 bombers ended their days as the aforementioned G-1 transports under the direction of Aeroflot.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Tupolev TB-1 Twin-Engine Heavy Bomber Aircraft.
2 x Mikulin M-17 V12 liquid-cooled inline piston engines developing 680 horsepower each.
Propulsion
111 mph
178 kph | 96 kts
Max Speed
15,846 ft
4,830 m | 3 miles
Service Ceiling
621 miles
1,000 km | 540 nm
Operational Range
595 ft/min
181 m/min
Rate-of-Climb
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Tupolev TB-1 Twin-Engine Heavy Bomber Aircraft.
6
(MANNED)
Crew
59.1 ft
18.00 m
O/A Length
93.5 ft
(28.50 m)
O/A Width
16.7 ft
(5.10 m)
O/A Height
9,965 lb
(4,520 kg)
Empty Weight
15,013 lb
(6,810 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4) Twin-Engine Heavy Bomber Aircraft .
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4) family line.
TB-1 - Base Series Designation
ANT-4 - Developmental designation
ANT-4bis - Prototype
TB-1P - Torpedo bomber with float undercarriage.
G-1 - Conversion transports
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4). Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 218 Units

Contractor(s): Tupolev OKB - Soviet Union
National flag of the Soviet Union

[ Soviet Union ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (111mph).

Graph Average of 90 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
218
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
WWI
Interwar
WWII
ColdWar
Postwar
Modern
Future
1 / 1
Image of the Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4)
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
GROUND ATTACK
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Tupolev TB-1 (ANT-4) Twin-Engine Heavy Bomber Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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