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Halberstadt CL.II


Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft


Imperial Germany | 1917



"Nearly 1,000 of the Hablerstadt biplane aircraft were produced during World War 1 - serving as escort fighters and ground attack platforms."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 07/31/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
It was the Halberstadt D.IV fighter that served as the basis for the CL.II escort fighter / ground attacker. The original D.IV was rejected by the German Air Service due to pilot vision out-of-the-cockpit and only saw three aircraft produced but it was this very design that influenced the upcoming CL.II, developed to a two-seat, defensive-minded patrol and pursuit requirement for the Germans of World War 1 (1914-1918). The CL.II fulfilled this role quite well and was produced to the tune of 900 examples.

The CL.II originally emerged under the designation of "C.II" during 1916 but this was reworked to become the "CL.II" in the summer of 1917. Like other aircraft in the Halberstadt stable, the CL.II carried a single 7.92mm LMG 08/15 synchronized machine gun in a fixed, forward-firing mounting for the pilot. Armament was augmented by the rear crewman being given management of a single 7.92mm LMG 14 series machine gun atop a flexible mounting. To fulfill the ground attack aspect of the requirement, the aircraft could be laden with up to five 22lb "Wurfgranaten 15" series trench mortar fragmentation bombs and ten stick grenades. Power was from a Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder inline engine of 160 horsepower driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose. A biplane wing arrangement (staggered) was used with parallel strutworks as was a fixed undercarriage (wheeled at the main legs) and open-air cockpits for the two crewmembers.

First-flight was had during early 1917 which led to a first-order placed in May. In August of that year, the aircraft was readied for battle and began arriving in useful numbers. Once in action, the series was well-regarded for its handling and power as well as good vision out-of-the-cockpit. In a matter of weeks, it proved itself one of the more valuable aircraft in service to the Germans as the type could engage air and ground targets with equal lethality - as well as defend itself when necessary. It also served as an escort to larger, slower and more vulnerable warplanes when needed, such was its over-battlefield flexibility.

To make up the 900-strong total, Halberstadt received no fewer than five total production batch orders and this accounted for at least 700 aircraft with manufacture ranging into the middle part of 1918. Bayerische FlugzeugWerke (BFW) supplied the other 200 aircraft in the total.

The CL.IIa was the sole variant of the CL.II line, this model carrying a BMW IIIa series engine and trialed for a time in frontline actions. It did not see quantitative production figures.

Both Lithuania and Poland became post-war operators of the CL.II.

As finalized, the CL.II could manage a maximum speed of 103 miles per hour with a service ceiling of 16,600 feet. Endurance was three hours and climb to 16,400 feet took forty minutes. Empty weight was 1,700lb against a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 2,500lb.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft.
1 x Mercedes D.III 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 160 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
Propulsion
103 mph
165 kph | 89 kts
Max Speed
16,732 ft
5,100 m | 3 miles
Service Ceiling
311 miles
500 km | 270 nm
Operational Range
550 ft/min
168 m/min
Rate-of-Climb
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft.
2
(MANNED)
Crew
24.0 ft
7.30 m
O/A Length
35.3 ft
(10.75 m)
O/A Width
9.0 ft
(2.75 m)
O/A Height
1,709 lb
(775 kg)
Empty Weight
2,502 lb
(1,135 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft .
STANDARD:
1 x 7.92mm Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun in fixed, forward-firing mounting synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
1 x 7.92mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun on flexible mounting in rear cockpit.

OPTIONAL:
5 x 22lb Wurfgranaten 15 series trench mortar fragmentation drop bombs.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Halberstadt CL.II family line.
CL.II - Base Series Designation
CL.IIa - Limited test form fitted with BMW IIIa series engines.
C.II - Original designation of 1916
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Halberstadt CL.II. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 900 Units

Contractor(s): Halberst?dter Flugzeugwerke (Halberstadt) / Bayerische FlugzeugWerke (BFW) - German Empire
National flag of the German Empire National flag of Lithuania National flag of Poland

[ German Empire; Lithuania (post-war); Poland (post-war) ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (103mph).

Graph Average of 90 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
900
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
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Future
1 / 1
Image of the Halberstadt CL.II
Image from the Public Domain.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
AIR-TO-AIR COMBAT
CLOSE-AIR SUPPORT
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Halberstadt CL.II Escort Biplane Fighter / Ground Attack Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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