The Bristol F.2 biplane fighter of World War 1 (1914-1918) was combined with a Bristol "Jupiter" series engine to produce the Bristol Jupiter design of 1924. The original form appeared back in 1916 and was produced across 5,329 total examples and served with the Royal Flying Corps and Polish Air Force among others. The move to the Jupiter powerplant was an attempt by Bristol Aeroplane to produce a speedier biplane fighter without requiring a completely new design - however it proved rather underwhelming in the intended role and only 26 of the type were produced in all. The aircraft was therefore relegated to the advanced trainer role in British service and served for a time with the Swedish Air Force as well - making Sweden the only foreign operator.
The design was set around the Jupiter IV series engine of 425 horsepower output. The prototype was born from the existing F.2 post-war aircraft stock to which three examples were pulled aside for modification. The first form became Type 76 which recorded its first flight during June of 1923 and this was followed by Type 76A which installed a bi-fuel Jupiter engine. The first prototype crashed in November following an engine failure at high altitude. Type 76B marked the third prototype which was purchased, evaluated and flown by the Swedish Air Force. This variant recorded its first-flight in 1924 and managed a career into 1935.
When the Type 76 failed to showcase itself as a viable fighter mount (it lacked the range and performance required), thought was given to progressing the nearly finalized design as a dual-control, twin-seat advanced biplane trainer. This led to development of the Type 89 from the earlier Type 76A offering and nine production models followed before the switch was made to the Type 89A mark - a modified version with revised fuselage construction. Fifteen of this model were produced.
As trainers for the British, the Type 89 flew into 1933 before being given up.
Structurally, the aircraft exhibited a length of 25 feet with a wingspan of 39.2 feet and height of 9 feet. Empty weight was 2,325lb against a MTOW of 3,250lb.
Performance-wise, the biplane (Type 89) could make speeds of 110 miles per hour, cruise around 95 miles per hour and reach out to ranges of 340 miles. Its listed service ceiling was 22,150 feet. The Bristol Jupiter IV engine was a 9-cylinder, single row radial unit outputting 320 horsepower.
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
✓Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.
✓X-Plane (Developmental, Prototype, Technology Demonstrator)
Aircraft developed for the role of prototyping, technology demonstration, or research / data collection.
Developed ability to be used as a dedicated trainer for student pilots (typically under the supervision of an instructor).
25.0 ft (7.62 m)
39.3 ft (11.97 m)
9.0 ft (2.75 m)
2,337 lb (1,060 kg)
3,263 lb (1,480 kg)
+926 lb (+420 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Bristol Type 89 (Jupiter) production variant)
biplane / over-under / straight
Design utilizes a dual-plane wing arrangement in which one mainplane member is seated above the other; biplanes enhance agility at the expense of added drag.
Dual mainplane configuration seating the members in an over-under fashion and poisitoned at different points along the fuselage.
The planform involves use of basic, straight mainplane members.
(Structural descriptors pertain to the Bristol Type 89 (Jupiter) production variant)
1 x Bristol Jupiter IV 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine of 320 horsepower driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
"Jupiter" - Base Series Name
Type 76 - Original prototype; single example completed.
Type 76A - Prototype with bi-fuel Jupiter engine installation; becoming Type 89 design.
Type 76B ("Swedish Fighter") - Evaluation fighter for Swedish Air Force usage; single example.
Type 89 - Twin-seat, dual-control trainer variant; nine examples built based on Type 76A.
Type 89A - Revised fuselage construction; fifteen examples completed.
Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective aerial campaigns / operations / aviation periods.
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Image from the Public Domain.
Aviation developments of similar form and function, or related to, the Bristol Jupiter...
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