Aircraft / Aviation Vehicles & Artillery Small Arms Warships & Submarines Military Ranks Military Pay Chart (2024) Special Forces
Aviation / Aerospace

Polikarpov I-1

Monoplane Fighter [ 1923 ]

Too many inherent faults restricted the Polikarpov I-1 from attaining official operational service with Soviet units of the Inter-war years.

Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 04/06/2016 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.

The Polikarpov line of aircraft under the flag of the Soviet Union began with the "I-1", the first indigenously designed and developed Soviet monoplane fighter. The design stemmed from Nikolai Polikarpov himself , aided by I.M. Kostkin, and the two brought about a modern single-seater that utilized a low-set monoplane wing planform. The prototype - IL-400 - achieved a first-flight on August 15th, 1923 but the I-1 series, as a whole, proved quite forgettable in the annals of Soviet aviation history.

The wooden aircraft was powered by an American "Liberty" L-12 water-cooled engine of 400 horsepower driving a two-blade propeller at the nose. The pilot sat in an open-air cockpit ahead of midships and the fuselage was given a well-tapered form with slab sides. The wing mainplanes were straight in their general design and featured clipped tips. The tail unit was traditional with a sole vertical fin and fuselage-mounted horizontal planes. The undercarriage was wheeled (under center mass) and incorporated a tail skid at the rear.

During its initial flight, IL-400 showcased such longitudinal instability that it led to a crash. This forced a major reworking of the design both internally and externally. Wooden construction still prevailed but thinner wings were implemented as well as a corrugated dural skinning technique. This revised form became IL400b (IL-2) and achieved its own first flight on July 18th, 1924. It was envisioned that the finalized military product would carry a pair of 7.62 machine guns set to fire over the nose and through the spinning propeller blades by way of interrupter gear.

Soviet authorities liked what they saw in the Polikarpov product and, after completing state trials, an order for eight aircraft was placed. This was then followed by an order for twenty-five more though completed to an all-wood construction standard. The finalized fighting model, I-1M-5 (IL-3), achieved a first flight on March 16th, 1926. This was powered by the local, license-produced copy of the Liberty engine designated "M-5".

Including the two prototypes, only 35 I-1 series aircraft were completed in all. The design was still found to be inherent unstable in certain envelopes and generally underpowered for a fighting type. Additionally, quality control from the Polikarpov facility brought the series down further and restricted its official deployment to Soviet aviation units. The first Soviet "exit-by-parachute" from an aircraft was done by Mikhail Gromov, this by necessity when his I-1 could not be recovered from a spin (June 1927).

As completed, the I-1 exhibited a length of 8.3 meters, a wingspan of 10.8 meters and a gross weight of 3,330 lb. Maximum speed attainable from the fuselage/engine mating was 165 miles per hour while a range of 404 miles was met. The aircraft's service ceiling reached 22,150 feet.©MilitaryFactory.com
Note: The above text is EXCLUSIVE to the site www.MilitaryFactory.com. It is the product of many hours of research and work made possible with the help of contributors, veterans, insiders, and topic specialists. If you happen upon this text anywhere else on the internet or in print, please let us know at MilitaryFactory AT gmail DOT com so that we may take appropriate action against the offender / offending site and continue to protect this original work.


Polikarpov OKB - Soviet Union
Soviet Union (cancelled)
Operators National flag of the Soviet Union
Service Year
Soviet Union
National Origin

General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.
Aircraft developed for the role of prototyping, technology demonstration, or research / data collection.

27.2 ft
(8.30 meters)
35.4 ft
(10.80 meters)
2,458 lb
(1,115 kilograms)
Empty Weight
3,329 lb
(1,510 kilograms)
Maximum Take-Off Weight
+871 lb
(+395 kg)
Weight Difference

1 x M-5 water-cooled engine (Liberty L-12) developing 400 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose.
165 mph
(265 kph | 143 knots)
Max Speed
22,146 ft
(6,750 m | 4 miles)
404 miles
(650 km | 351 nm)

MACH Regime (Sonic)
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030

2 x 7.62mm machine guns over the nose set to fire through the spinning propeller blades by way of interrupter gear.


I-1 - Base Series Designation
IL-400 - Initial all-wood prototype; Liberty L-12 engine of 400hp.
IL-400b (IL-2) - Second prototype with metal skin; revised thinner wing sections; redesigned internally and externally.
I-1M-5 (IL-3) - Revised IL-400b with all-wood construction; M-5 400hp engine; 33 examples completed.

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for Special Forces
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Ukranian-Russian War
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft


1 / 1
Image of the Polikarpov I-1
Image from the Public Domain.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies

2024 Military Pay Chart Military Ranks DoD Dictionary Conversion Calculators Military Alphabet Code Military Map Symbols

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. No A.I. was used in the generation of this content; site is 100% curated by humans.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, WDMMA.org (World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft), WDMMW.org (World Directory of Modern Military Warships), SR71blackbird.org, detailing the history of the world's most iconic spyplane, and MilitaryRibbons.info, cataloguing military medals and ribbons. Special Interest: RailRoad Junction, the locomotive encyclopedia.

©2023 www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-2023 (20yrs)