The nation of Canada once managed a thriving aviation industry until politics and economics doomed its status. The industry saw a great evolution in the years following World War 2 (1939-1945) at a time when the jet age was taking hold of air services around the globe. The concern of Canadiar was founded during the war years in 1944 and had managed a name for itself into the new millennium (now falling under the Bombardier Aerospace brand label). Throughout its storied history, the company put forth a healthy resume of locally-designed and foreign-born aircraft.
The Canadair CT-114 "Tutor" (company model "CL-41") was a product of the Cold War period and emerged in the early 1960s for the trainer role. At its core it was a conventional twin-seat (side-by-side seating), jet-powered type with straight wing appendages. The line saw operational use into 2000 with 212 examples built from the period spanning 1963 until 1966. However, the CT-114 found few takers overseas with just Malaysia becoming the sole foreign operator and these operated until 1985 before being succeeded by the Italian Aermacchi MB339.
The CT-114 also served as the mount of choice for the "Golden Centennaires", the Royal Canadian Air Force's aerobatic flight demonstration team.
Its overall design showcased a streamlined airframe seating its crew of two at front and the engine mounted deep within the fuselage. The aircraft carried a "T-style" tail unit in which the horizontal plane was set at the extreme top of the vertical fin (the original paper design held a cruciform design approach). The straight wing mainplanes offered good lift and agility as well as solid controlling at slower speeds. The undercarriage was of a tricycle wheeled arrangement and made fully retractable. Airbrakes were a paired approach, each panel emerging from the empennage sides when called into play.
Power was from a single Orenda J85-CAN-40 turbojet engine developing 2,650lb of thrust, aspiration accomplished through small, half-moon-shaped intakes found along the fuselage sides. The engine exhausted through a single circular port at the rear of the airframe, at the base of the tail. This engine was a locally-produced (under license) copy of the American General Electric J85 series, the same engine that powered the American Cessna A-37 "Dragonfly" light attack aircraft which bears a strong similarity to the Canadian CT-114 / CL-41 family.
While dedicated trainer forms remained unarmed - they (later) carried a pair of external fuel tanks under the belly for increased flight time - ground attack forms like those shipped to Malaysia could be outfitted with the usual ground attack arsenal - gun pods, rocket pods and conventional drop bombs.
First flight of a CL-41 occurred on January 13th, 1960 and, in September of 1961, an order for 190 of the type followed. In time this stock of aircraft had their avionics upgraded and provision for external fuel tanks added. The "CL-41" designation was used to mark two prototypes and these were used extensively for testing and engineering purposes. CL-41A were the definitive Canadian trainers totaling 190 aircraft. CL-41G was a specialized ground attack version delivered to Malaysia and numbered 20 aircraft. Locally they came to be known under the "Tebuan" name (meaning "Wasp") and were given more powerful turbojet engines and underwing hardpoints for ordnance. Support for drop tanks was also included. CL-41R marked a one-off conversion of the CL-41 prototype finished with the nose of a CF-104 (a license-produced version of the American Lockheed F-104 Starfighter) to undergo testing with F-104 avionics and radar fits.
While lacking the fanfare or sales of competing jet-powered trainer types of the period, the CT-114 made itself a solid training platform and a proud accomplishment for Canadian aeroindustry. It served a healthily long operational life, spanning nearly 40 years, which gave testament to the product's sound design and engineering.
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
✓Close-Air Support (CAS)
Developed to operate in close proximity to active ground elements by way of a broad array of air-to-ground ordnance and munitions options.
Developed ability to be used as a dedicated trainer for student pilots (typically under the supervision of an instructor).
32.0 ft (9.75 m)
36.3 ft (11.05 m)
9.4 ft (2.85 m)
4,850 lb (2,200 kg)
11,023 lb (5,000 kg)
+6,173 lb (+2,800 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Canadair CL-41A production variant)
1 x Orenda J85-CAN-40 (General Electric J85) non-afterburning turbojet engine developing 2,650 lb of thrust.
Typically none. Two under-fuselage hardpoints for fuel tanks. Ground attack variant featured underwing hardpoints for carrying ordnance such as gun pods, rocket pods, and conventional drop bombs.
(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)
Hardpoint Mountings: 2
CT-114 "Tutor" - Canadian Military Designation.
CL-41 - Company model designation covering two test and engineering prototypes.
CL-41A - Initial production model; 190 examples completed for Canada.
CL-41G "Tebuan" - Malaysian export model designation; 20 examples delivered in a light ground attack form.
CL-41R - One-off conversion model of a CL-41 prototype for testing radar and avionics fits; none ordered.
Ribbon graphics not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective aerial campaigns / operations / aviation periods.
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