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Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf


Torpedo Bomber Aircraft


United States | 1944



"Despite a USN order for 1,100 aircraft, just 180 of the Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf aircraft were realized."



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 06/05/2019 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site; No A.I. was used in the generation of this content.
The story of the Consolidated Vultee TBY "Sea Wolf" began with competitor Vought who earned a single prototype contract from the United States Navy (USN) for its "XTBU-1" torpedo bomber design in April of 1940. This work stemmed from a 1939 USN torpedo bomber competition and the Vought team emerged with an aircraft design and configuration that was not unlike that of the competing Grumman TBF "Avenger" torpedo bomber. The Vought approach was powered by a single Pratt & Whitney XR-2800-6 radial piston engine of 2,000 horsepower and its crew numbered three under a long-running greenhouse-style canopy. The fuselage was purposely deep for the bomb bay within, The bay featured two-piece powered doors and offered support for conventional drop bombs or a torpedo up to 2,000lbs. Additional armament came from a 0.30 caliber medium machine gun in a fixed, forward-firing mount managed by the pilot and a 0.50 caliber machine gun in a powered aft dorsal turret for a dedicated gunner. A 0.30 caliber machine gun was mounted in a ventral ball facing aft to protect the aircraft's more vulnerable lower rear angles. The wings were cleared for the carrying of 500lb bombs as well as high-velocity, high-explosive rockets.

The XTBU-1 was granted the nickname of "Sea Wolf" and the prototype achieved first flight on December 22nd, 1941. Despite the USN already committed to the Grumman product, the XTBU-1 was furthered as an insurance policy against the Avenger. The XTBU-1 prototype, although heavier than its competitor, showcased better performance which gave it an underlying edge against the favored Avenger design and formal evaluations of the Vought prototype began in March of 1942.

As a result of this phase, the USN contracted for 1,100 Vought TBU-1 torpedo bombers at the height of the war in the Pacific. However, Vought's current commitment lay in manufacture of the classic F4U "Corsair" carrier-based fighter by the thousands which left little room for a new torpedo bomber in the production mix. The aircraft was then contracted out to Consolidated Vultee in December of 1942 which was to produce the aircraft as the "TBY-1". A converted a truck plant in Allentown, Pennsylvania would be its home facility. Both the conversion process and employee training would delay the TBY-1 project for months as manufacture attempted to ramp up.

The program also suffered two major setbacks when its prototype was damaged and this served to only delay the project even further. On the first occasion, the tail unit was ripped away during an arrestor hook landing trial forcing lengthy repairs. The aircraft's new tail then got caught in the blades of an out-of-control trainer aircraft which resulted in another round of repairs. During the lull, engineers went ahead and devised a new, less complicated single-piece bomb bay door system, added more cockpit armoring and revised the undercarriage for the better. The Pratt & Whitney R-2800-20 series radial engine also replaced the original selection and additional machine guns were introduced for more potent firepower.

As delays in the Allentown plant continued, the engine switched out again, this time to the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-22 series of 2,100 horsepower and this change begat the new "TBY-2" designation.

As completed, the TBY featured a length of 39 feet,2 inches with a wingspan of 56 feet, 11 inches and height of 15 feet, 6 inches. Empty weight was listed at 11,365lbs with a Maximum Take-Off Weight of 18,450lbs. Maximum speed from the R-2800 radial was 305 miles per hour with a range out to 1,500 miles and a service of 27,200 feet. The Avenger managed a top speed of 275 miles per hour with a range of 1,000 miles and service ceiling of 30,100 feet.

The war - and its related technologies - had progressed to the point that the TBY was soon becoming a casualty of its own delays while the Grumman bomber was finding success. An operational quality Vultee aircraft did not hit the skies until August 1944 and the USN, sensing it no longer needed the Vought product, returned with a reduced procurement order for just 504 aircraft (in comparison the Grumman Avenger saw production reach over 9,800 by war's end). It was not until November of 1944 than the USN received its first TBY-2 and deliveries continued into 1945.

Production continued at a snail's pace with the war in Europe ending in May of 1945. In July, the USN marked its TBY-2 order down to 250 aircraft and, on August 14th, TBY-2 order was canceled in full - ending the reign of the Sea Wolf for good. What deliveries did occur to the USN totaled only 180 aircraft and these obsolete machine were relegated to training and little else. All Sea Wolf airframes were scrapped by 1947.

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Power & Performance
Those special qualities that separate one aircraft design from another. Performance specifications presented assume optimal operating conditions for the Consolidated Vultee TBY-2 Sea Wolf Torpedo Bomber Aircraft.
1 x Pratt & Whitney R-2800-22 air-cooled radial piston engine developing 2,100 horsepower driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
Propulsion
306 mph
492 kph | 266 kts
Max Speed
27,231 ft
8,300 m | 5 miles
Service Ceiling
1,501 miles
2,415 km | 1,304 nm
Operational Range
City-to-City Ranges
Operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Structure
The nose-to-tail, wingtip-to-wingtip physical qualities of the Consolidated Vultee TBY-2 Sea Wolf Torpedo Bomber Aircraft.
3
(MANNED)
Crew
39.2 ft
11.95 m
O/A Length
56.9 ft
(17.35 m)
O/A Width
15.5 ft
(4.72 m)
O/A Height
11,336 lb
(5,142 kg)
Empty Weight
18,488 lb
(8,386 kg)
MTOW
Design Balance
The three qualities reflected below are altitude, speed, and range. The more full the box, the more balanced the design.
RANGE
ALT
SPEED
Armament
Available supported armament and special-mission equipment featured in the design of the Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf Torpedo Bomber Aircraft .
STANDARD:
1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun in engine cowling.
1 x 0.50 caliber machine gun in rear powered turret.
1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun in ventral ball mounting.
2 x 0.50 caliber machine guns in wings (later).

OPTIONAL:
Up to 2,000lbs of internal and external stores including conventional drop bombs (or a single torpedo) and underwing rockets.
Variants
Notable series variants as part of the Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf family line.
XTBU-1 "Sea Wolf" - Original Vought product; single prototype example.
TBY-2 - Consolidated Vultee production mark.
TBY-3 - Proposed mark with R-2800-34 engine; tested on 7th production TBY-2; never furthered.
Operators
Global customers who have evaluated and/or operated the Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf. Nations are displayed by flag, each linked to their respective national aircraft listing.

Total Production: 180 Units

Contractor(s): Consolidate Vultee / Vought - USA
National flag of the United States

[ United States ]
Relative Max Speed
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
Aircraft Max Listed Speed (306mph).

Graph Average of 300 MPH.
Era Crossover
Pie graph section
Showcasing Aircraft Era Crossover (if any)
Max Alt Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Production Comparison
180
36183
44000
Entry compared against Ilyushin IL-2 (military) and Cessna 172 (civilian) total production.
MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030
Aviation Timeline
EarlyYrs
WWI
Interwar
WWII
ColdWar
Postwar
Modern
Future
1 / 1
Image of the Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf
Front right side view of the TBY-2 Sea Wolf production aircraft; US Navy photograph.

Mission Roles
Some designs are single-minded in their approach while others offer a more versatile solution to airborne requirements.
GROUND ATTACK
MARITIME / NAVY
Recognition
Some designs stand the test of time while others are doomed to never advance beyond the drawing board; let history be their judge.
Going Further...
The Consolidated Vultee TBY Sea Wolf Torpedo Bomber Aircraft appears in the following collections:
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