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Chengdu (AVIC) J-7 / F-7 (Fishcan)


Interceptor / Strike Fighter Aircraft (1980)


Aviation / Aerospace

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Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.
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Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.
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Image from the United States Department of Defense imagery database.

Jump-to: Specifications

The widely-exported Chengdu J-7 was nothing more than a Chinese license-production copy of the Soviet-era Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed.



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 05/25/2021 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
After World War 2 (1939-1945), China and the Soviet Union were cooperating political powers. This naturally led to China being the recipient of modern technology developed by Soviet engineers. Ultimately, adoption of Soviet aircraft, tanks and small arms occurred and this allowed the Chinese to field Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 "Fagot" jet-powered fighters in the Korean War. In 1955, the Soviet government granted China license production of the MiG-17 jet fighter and these were produced locally in the hundreds. The intimate experience in producing advanced jet aircraft ultimately allowed a burgeoning Chinese aero industry to develop centering on ordnance, airframes and powerplants. Reverse engineering of military weapons would prove a certain Chinese-held talent over the decades - a trait that continues even today. Wholly-indigenous two-seat trainers were eventually designed, developed and produced, all in-house. License production of the MiG-19 then followed into the 1960s though this period was soon hampered by the Sino-Soviet Split of 1960-1989 which saw a deterioration of the political and military partnership.

Despite the differences, relations seemingly thawed some during that span, enough to open the door for the Soviet Union to introduce the Chinese to their new MiG-21 "Fishbed" interceptor. License production was granted in 1962 and the local concern of Shenyang was charged with copying the MiG-21F-13 "Fishbed-C" and its RD-11F-300 series engine. The Soviets assisted through personnel, aeronautical agencies and kits, the latter intended for local Chinese assembly. Under the Chinese initiative, the MiG-21F was bestowed the designation of "J-7" and its foreign export counterpart would become the "F-7" (subsequently given the unflattering NATO codename of "Fishcan" with exports named "Airguard"). The corresponding engine copy was the localized "WP-7" offering. Initial engine trials occurred in October of 1965 and the prototype was finalized in November of that year. First flight of a Chinese F-7 was on January 17th, 1966. The type proved a serviceable copy and serial production was ordered though slow, beginning in June of 1967. Production, hampered by the arrival of the "Cultural Revolution" (1966-1976), was then allocated to Chengdu facilities. The Revolution undoubtedly hurt the J-7 in the early going as disruptions delayed full operational status of the system until the early 1980s. From there, many kinks were apparent as the Chinese product proved subpar when compared to its Soviet version. Issues were not resolved until 1985.

At its core, the F-7 can be considered a fair copy of the excellent and widely popular 1960s-era MiG-21. The fuselage is of a largely tubular design with low-set delta-shaped main wings and well-swept tail planes. The aircraft relies on a single vertical tail fin. The cockpit is set well-forward in the design with a lightly framed canopy. There is no traditional nosecone as the nose is left open to aspirate the single engine fitting. The undercarriage is wholly retractable and consists of two single-wheeled main legs and a single-wheeled nose leg.

Chinese production allowed Chengdu to sell their aircraft version to budget conscious shoppers worldwide and many parties took the Chinese up on their offers. The type proved exceedingly popular with elements in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia where a capable interceptor with added strike capabilities could finally be had at cost. Further developments in the J-7 lines added to the type's effectiveness though it was nearly always a decade or so behind the Western competition.
Initial production batch models were known simply as J-7 (export models were the F-7) and appeared from Shengyang in 1966 through a 12-strong commitment. These versions fielded only one 30mm NR-30 cannon and two underwing hardpoints allowed for air-to-air ordnance to be fitted as normal. The J-7I was an improved J-7 now handled by Chendgu and revealed in the 1970s. A variable intake was installed over the fixed type of the original and 2 x 30mm guns completed the standard armament installation. This then led to the improved J-7I("modified") with improved hydraulics (a definitive problem area of earlier mounts). From there, the J-7 emerged in a plethora of workable fighter, interception and strike mounts and these proved ever popular in far-off places of the world. Albania and Tanzania became some of the first F-7 operators receiving their export-minded F-7A variants. Pakistan became a large supporter of the F-7 line and a principle, recurring Chinese customer in other areas as well. Egypt operated the F-7 in number as did North Korea and Bangladesh. Iraq became a former operator after the US-led invasion in 2003, eighty of the type being retired permanently. The improved J-7II was worked on beginning in 1975 and featured a more maintenance-efficient, powerful engine. These saw service with both Egypt and Iraq (as the F-7B) beginning in the 1980s.

The F-7M "Airguard" variant was an improved J-7II model intended for export sale and fitted with Western-centric avionics for broader mass market appeal. Extra hardpoints were added as were internal British and American systems. A more powerful engine worked in concert with a new cranked delta wing design for improved performance and handling. The J-III followed and this was largely based on the MiG-21MF, believed by way of Egypt, and reverse-engineered by Chinese engineers for reproduction and eventual resale. These new mounts offered an all-weather attack radar with in a new radome assembly, a capability lacking in many earlier models. The local concern of Guizhou managed production of twin-seat trainer variants in the JJ-7 and FT-7 and similar.

Other J-7/F-8 models exist (see variants listing below for a complete list). Many offer only subtle changes to design (HUD support, in-cockpit MFD, HOTAS, etc...) and functionality while others were heavy revisions or complete rewrites that never came to pass. At any rate, the F-7 has more or less seen its best days behind it and, for all intents and purposes, is an outclassed fighter mount by modern standards. However, it has proven relatively inexpensive to procure in number and allowed many-a-nation to provide its air services with a capable reach, particularly when a 1960's era fighter was enough to subdue a weaker neighbor.

November 2020 - At least seven F-7Ni will be broken down and shipped to China to undergo a life extension program. An additional two will be refurbished by local industry.

Specifications



Service Year
1980

Origin
China national flag graphic
China

Status
ACTIVE
In Active Service.
Crew
1

Production
2,450
UNITS


Shengyang / Chengdu / Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) - China
National flag of Albania National flag of Bangladesh National flag of China National flag of Egypt National flag of Iraq National flag of Iran National flag of Mozambique National flag of Myanmar National flag of Namibia National flag of Nigeria National flag of North Korea National flag of Pakistan National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Sudan National flag of Tanzania National flag of Yemen National flag of Zimbabwe Albania; Bangladesh; China; Egypt; Iran; Iraq; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nigeria; North Korea; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Tanzania; Yemen; Zimbabwe
(OPERATORS list includes past, present, and future operators when applicable)
Air-to-Air Combat, Fighter
General ability to actively engage other aircraft of similar form and function, typically through guns, missiles, and/or aerial rockets.
Interception
Ability to intercept inbound aerial threats by way of high-performance, typically speed and rate-of-climb.
Ground Attack (Bombing, Strafing)
Ability to conduct aerial bombing of ground targets by way of (but not limited to) guns, bombs, missiles, rockets, and the like.


RADAR-CAPABLE
Houses, or can house (through specialized variants), radar equipment for searching, tracking, and engagement of enemy elements.
COUNTERMEASURES
Survivability enhanced by way of onboard electronic or physical countermeasures enacted by the aircraft or pilot/crew.
WING SWEEPBACK
Mainplanes, or leading edges, features swept-back lines for enhanced high-speed performance and handling.
RUGGED AIRFRAME
Inherent ability of airframe to take considerable damage.
HIGH-SPEED PERFORMANCE
Can accelerate to higher speeds than average aircraft of its time.
HIGH-ALTITUDE PERFORMANCE
Can reach and operate at higher altitudes than average aircraft of its time.
PILOT / CREW EJECTION SYSTEM
Assisted process of allowing its pilot and / or crew to eject in the event of an airborne emergency.
CREWSPACE PRESSURIZATION
Supports pressurization required at higher operating altitudes for crew survival.
ENCLOSED CREWSPACE(S)
Features partially- or wholly-enclosed crew workspaces.
RETRACTABLE UNDERCARRIAGE
Features retracting / retractable undercarriage to preserve aerodynamic efficiency.


Length
48.8 ft
(14.88 m)
Width/Span
27.3 ft
(8.32 m)
Height
13.5 ft
(4.11 m)
Empty Wgt
11,684 lb
(5,300 kg)
MTOW
20,062 lb
(9,100 kg)
Wgt Diff
+8,378 lb
(+3,800 kg)
(Showcased structural values pertain to the Chengdu J-7 / F-7 production variant)
monoplane / mid-mounted / delta, tailed
Monoplane
Design utilizes a single primary wing mainplane; this represent the most popular mainplane arrangement.
Mid-Mounted
Mainplanes are mounted along the midway point of the sides of the fuselage.
Delta, Tailed
The delta planform features a conventional tailplane arrangement which enhances control.
(Structural descriptors pertains to the Chengdu J-7 / F-7 production variant)
Installed: 1 x Liyang WP-13F afterburning turbojet engine developing 9,900lb of thrust dry and 14,550 lb of thrust with reheat.
Max Speed
1,367 mph
(2,200 kph | 1,188 kts)
Cruise Speed
1,134 mph
(1,825 kph | 985 kts)
Max. Speed Diff
+233 mph
(+375 kph | 202 kts)
Ceiling
57,415 ft
(17,500 m | 11 mi)
Range
1,367 mi
(2,200 km | 4,074 nm)
Rate-of-Climb
38,400 ft/min
(11,704 m/min)


♦ MACH Regime (Sonic)
Sub
Trans
Super
Hyper
HiHyper
ReEntry
RANGES (MPH) Subsonic: <614mph | Transonic: 614-921 | Supersonic: 921-3836 | Hypersonic: 3836-7673 | Hi-Hypersonic: 7673-19180 | Reentry: >19030


(Showcased performance specifications pertain to the Chengdu J-7 / F-7 production variant. Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database. View aircraft by powerplant type)
STANDARD:
1 OR 2 x 30mm Type 30-1 internal cannons (depending on production model).

OPTIONAL:
Air-to-air and air-to-surface external ordnance across two or four underwing hardpoints. Munitions include air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground rocket pods, and conventional drop bombs.

Also provision for jettisonable fuel drop tanks for increased operating ranges.


Supported Types


Graphical image of an aircraft automatic cannon
Graphical image of an air-to-air missile weapon
Graphical image of a short-range air-to-air missile
Graphical image of an aircraft air-to-surface missile
Graphical image of aircraft aerial rockets
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Graphical image of an aircraft external fuel tank


(Not all ordnance types may be represented in the showcase above)
Hardpoint Mountings: 5
Mounting Points




-
-
-
7
5
-
1
-
4
6
-
-
-
HARDPOINT(S) KEY:
X

15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
2
4
6
8
10
12
14


COLOR KEY:
Fuselage Centerline
Fuselage Port/Wingroot
Fuselage Starboard/Wingroot
Wing/Underwing
Wingtip Mount(s)
Internal Bay(s)
Not Used

Note: Diagram above does not take into account inline hardpoints (mounting positions seated one-behind-the-other).


J-7 ("Fishcan") - Base Series Designation; original production versions; 12 examples completed by Shengyang; 1 x 30mm cannon.
J-7I - Improved J-7; production by Chengdu; 2 x 30mm cannons; 2 x underwing hardpoints.
J-7I (Modified) - Improved hydraulics system.
J-7II - Improved J-7I model; 2 x 30mm cannons; WP-7B engine.
J-7IIA - Improved J-7II; outfitted with Western-centric avionics suite; HUD.
J-7IIM - Modernization to F-7M standard.
J-7IIH - Improved J-7II; improved strike capability; MFD; support for PL-8 AA missile.
J-7IIK - Modernization to J-7MP standard.
J-7III - MiG-21MF copy; JL-7 fire control radar; modern avionics; WP-13 engine.
J-7B - Revised canopy design.
J-7BS - 4 x underwing hardpoints.
J-7E - Improved J-7II of late 1980s; double-delta wing assemblies; WF-13F engine; Super Skyranger radar facility; HOTAS.
J-7EB - Acrobatic variant for public displays.
J-7EH - Maritime patrol variant with support for anti-ship ordnance.
J-7FS - Technology Demonstrator.
J-7G - Improved J-7E; new KLJ-6E PD radar facility; improved engine performance; helmet-mounted sights; 1 x 30mm cannon.
J-7G2 - Improved J-7G with advanced radar facility.
J-7GB - Acrobatic variant for public display.
J-7M - Technology Demonstrator.
J-7MF - Proposed modernized J-7FS; underfuselage intake; positional wing canards.
J-7MG - Proposed export model to Western-aligned customers; outfitted with Super Skyranger adar; Martin-Baker ejection seat.
J-7MP - Upgraded J-7MG models; AIM-9 Siewinder capability.
J-7PG - Outfitted with Italian radar facility.
JJ-7 - Twin-seat trainer mount by Guizhou.
JJ-7I - MiG-21US twin-seat trainer.
JJ-7II - JJ-7I outfitted with Rockwell Collins avionics suite.
JL-9 (FTC-2000) - Modern twin-seat trainer based on JJ-7 by GAIC.
JZ-7 - J-7 reconnaissance mount.
J-7 (Drone) - J-7I-based unmanned drones.
F-7II - Export J-7IIA.
F-7IIN - Zimbabwe F-7M models.
F-7III - Export J-7III.
J-7IIIA - Improved F-7III for export.
F-7A - Albania and Tanzania export models.
F-7B - J-7II export model.
F-7BG - Bangladesh export model.
F-7BG1 - Upgraded Bangladesh export model.
F-7BS - J-7BS export model.
F-7D - J-7IIIA export model.
F-7M "Airguard" - Improved J-7II for export; Western equipment and avionics.
F-7MB - Bangldesh export model.
F-7MF - Proposed J-7MF export model with Italian radar.
F-7MG - J-7MG export model.
F-7MP - J-7MP export model.
F-7N - Iranian F-7MP export model.
F-7Ni - Nigerian Air Force export model.
F-7P - Modernized Pakistani Air Force export model.
F-7PG - Pakistani Air Force export model.
F-7W - J-7 export model with HUD.
FT-7 - JJ-7 export model.
FT-7A - MiG-21U export conversion package.
FT-7B - JJ-7II export trainer model.
FT-7M - F-7M trainer for export.
FT-7P - F-7MP/F-7P trainer for export.
FT-7PG - FT-7 trainer for export.
F-7S "Saber II" - Proposed Grumman revision of F-7M for Pakistani Air Force; cancelled.
F-7 "Super-7" - British-originated upgrade program.


General Assessment
Firepower  
Performance  
Survivability  
Versatility  
Impact  


Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
Overall Rating
The overall rating takes into account over 60 individual factors related to this aircraft entry.
74
Rating is out of a possible 100 points.
Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 1400mph
Lo: 700mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (1,367mph).

Graph average of 1,050 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Chengdu J-7 / F-7 operational range when compared to distances between major cities (in KM).
Max Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Design Balance
The 3 qualities we look at for a balanced aircraft design are altitude, speed, and range.
Aviation Era Span
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Showcasing era cross-over of this aircraft design.
Unit Production (2,450)
2450
36183
44000
This entry's total production compared against the most-produced military and civilian aircraft types in history (Ilyushin IL-2 and Cessna 172, respectively).
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