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Leonardo / AgustaWestland Lynx / Super Lynx

Multi-role Helicopter / Anti-Submarine / Anti-Ship

Leonardo / AgustaWestland Lynx / Super Lynx

Multi-role Helicopter / Anti-Submarine / Anti-Ship

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



Main versions of the Westland Lynx helicopter covered army and navy service roles that proved the type's adaptability to varying mission requirements.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United Kingdom
YEAR: 1978
STATUS: Active, In-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Leonardo-Finmeccanica - Italy / Westland; AgustaWestland - UK
PRODUCTION: 415
OPERATORS: Algeria; Argentina; Brazil; Denmark; France; Germany; Malaysia; Netherlands; Nigeria; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Portugal; South Africa; South Korea; Thailand; United Kingdom; Qatar
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Leonardo Lynx AH.9 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 2
LENGTH: 43.44 feet (13.24 meters)
WIDTH: 42.06 feet (12.82 meters)
HEIGHT: 12.24 feet (3.73 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 7,705 pounds (3,495 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 11,299 pounds (5,125 kilograms)
ENGINE: 2 x Rolls-Royce Gen 42-1 turboshaft engines driving a four-blade main rotor and a tail rotor.
SPEED (MAX): 158 miles-per-hour (255 kilometers-per-hour; 138 knots)
RANGE: 426 miles (685 kilometers; 370 nautical miles)
CEILING: 10,597 feet (3,230 meters; 2.01 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 2,480 feet-per-minute (756 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



Variant-specific armament may include the following:

Attack Helicopter:
8 x TOW anti-tank guided missiles (set of two quadruple launchers)
2 x 70mm rocket pods
2 x 20mm cannon pods on fuselage sides

Anti-Submarine Warfare:
4 x Sea Skua anti-ship missiles (British Navy)
4 x AS.12 wire-guided anti-ship missiles (French Navy)

Anti-Surface Warfare:
2 x torpedoes (Mk 44, Mk 46, A244S or Stingray)
2 x Mk 11 depth charges

General Purpose Battlefield Role:
2 x 7.62mm general purpose machine guns (pintle mount side doors)
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• WG.13 - Initial Westland Prototype Designation
• AH.Mk 1 - Initial Production Version
• AH.Mk 1GT - Conversion model for Royal Army based on AH.Mk 1 model.
• HAS.Mk 2 - Naval model for Britain
• HAS.Mk 2(FN) - French naval model designation
• HAS.Mk 3(S) - Improved version of the HAS.Mk 2; Updated communications equipment.
• HAS.Mk 3(GM(S)) - Persian Gulf Conversion Model for Royal Navy.
• HAS.Mk 3(ICE(S)) - Cold Weather Conversion Model
• HAS.Mk 4(FN) - French upgraded model
• AH.Mk 5 - British Army trial prototype
• AH.Mk 6 - Royal Marines proposed model
• AH.Mk 7 - Attack Model for Royal Marines and Royal Army branches.
• HMA.Mk 8 "Super Lynx" - An upgraded attack model based on the maritime version.
• HMA.Mk 8DSP
• HMA.Mk 8DAS
• AH.Mk 9 "Battlefield Lynx" - Royal Army version of the AH.7 model.
• Mk.21 - Brazilian Export Model (SAH-11) based on HAS.Mk 2 variant.
• Mk.21A - Brazilian Navy Export Model based on the HMA.Mk 8 Super Lynx variant.
• Mk.21B - Brazilian Navy modernization; all-glass digital cockpit; LHTEC CST800-4N engines; upgraded mission system.
• Mk.22 - Egyptian Navy Export Model
• Mk.23 - Argentine Navy Export Model
• Mk.24 - Iraqi Army Export Model (never produced).
• Mk.25 - Royal Netherlands Navy Export Model (UH-14A).
• Mk.26 - Iraqi Army Export Version (never produced).
• Mk.27 - Royal Netherlands Navy Export Version (SH-14B).
• Mk.28 - Qatar Police Export Model of the HAS.Mk 1 version.
• Mk.64 - South African Air Force Export Model of the Super Lynx variant.
• Mk.80 - Royal Danish Navy Export Model of the HAS.Mk 2 variant.
• Mk.81 - Royal Netherlands Navy Export Model (SH-14C).
• Mk.82 - Egyptian Army Export Model (never produced).
• Mk.83 - Saudi Arabian Army Export Model (never produced).
• Mk.84 - Qatar Army Export Model (never produced).
• Mk.85 - UAE Army Export Model (Never produced).
• Mk.86 - Royal Norwegian Air Force Export Model based on the HAS.Mk 2.
• Mk.87 - Argentine Navy Export Model (never delivered).
• Mk.88 - German Navy Export Model
• Mk.88A - Upgraded Mk.88 German Navy Export Model
• Mk.90 - Royal Danish Navy Export Model
• Mk.90B Super Lynx - Upgraded Royal Danish Navy Model of the Mk.80 and Mk.90 versions.
• Mk.95 - Portuguese Navy Export Model based on the HAS.Mk 8 variant.
• Mk.99 - South Korean Navy Export Model based on the HAS.Mk 8 variant.
• Super Lynx 300 - Export version of the base Super Lynx.
• Battlefield Lynx - Proposed Export Model Designation.
• Battlefield 800 - Proposed Export Model designation; Discontinued support for project.
• Lynx ACH - Experimental Test Model
• SH-14A - Royal Netherlands Navy Model based on the HAS.2 variant.
• SH-14B - Royal Netherlands Navy Model
• SH-14C - Royal Netherlands Navy Model
• SH-14D - Royal Netherlands Navy upgraded model.
• SAH-11 - Brazilian Navy Export Model Designation.
• Westland 30 - Passenger seating for up to 22 personnel; enlarged fuselage; 40 examples produced.
• "Future Lynx" - Model under development (2009) with arrivial estimated in 2014; WD.30 style tailfins; LHTEC CTS800-4N turboshaft engines; increased payload; digital cockpit with 4 x large MFDs; laser target designator; nose-mounted optical sensor turret; new tail rotor.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Leonardo / AgustaWestland Lynx / Super Lynx Multi-role Helicopter / Anti-Submarine / Anti-Ship.  Entry last updated on 10/12/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Westland Lynx (AgustaWestland since 2000) was designed to a British Army requirement and initially consisted of four planned projects that included an army, navy, 2-seat attack and civilian passenger versions. The main idea of the planned four designs revolved around utilization of differing airframes centered around the same powerplant components making for one economical and reusable solution. In the end, only the army and navy versions were ever actually completed but both types went on to see extensive usage in military forces of various nations, taking on other roles in the process and spawning a myriad of variants as needed. The Lynx is currently in active service - a sound testament to the original 1960's era design.

Development

Lynx began as the Westland WG.13 (Westland numbered each of their designs in this consecutive format meaning that it had already completed some 12 other designs previous to WG.13), intended to replace the aging "Scout" and gangly "Wasp" platforms, both past Westland products themselves. This system was also intended to challenge the role currently held by the American Huey UH-1 Cobra helicopter in the attack role. Initially, the helicopter endeavor included Aerospatiale of France (to make up some 30% of the Lynx production), with France looking to purchase both army and navy versions of the Lynx while Britain was to take deliveries of Aerospatiale products in turn (Gazelle and Puma). The 1967 coproduction agreement led to nowhere as the French bowed out so Westland proceeded on the Lynx design on their own, achieving first flight on March 21st, 1971. A total of 6 prototypes were eventually built (along with 7 preproduction models) while production of the Lynx line was handled at Westland in Yeovil, Somerset, England.

Despite its origins as a naval attack platform, the Lynx was quick to showcase its performance capabilities and roomy cabin, offering more potential for the system than originally envisioned for armed service. The aircraft was quite capable of performing loops and could roll and handle much like a traditional fixed-wing aircraft thanks to its main rotor design - making it quite responsive. In 1972, the Lynx set a new helicopter speed record by achieving 321.74 km/h and would later best this number by hitting 400.87 km/h on August 11th, 1986, the latter thanks to new rotor blades (complete with swept tips) via the British Experimental Rotor Program (or BERP). This particular Lynx was the 102nd production AH.Mk 1 model but modified with twin auxiliary tail fins and water-methanol boosted engines. The converted AH.Mk 1 model was later reconfigured back to its army status with standard equipment eventually retired to the UK Helicopter Museum.

The Lynx has appeared in both land-based and naval variants, both stemming from the two original army and navy designs. Land-based variants included the initial British Army AH.Mk 1 - which took on a variety of tasks during service - and the AH.Mk 7, an improved version of the AH.Mk 5 for the Army Air Corps and Fleet Air Arm featuring an IR suppressor over the exhaust, the BERP main rotor arrangement and Sky Guardian radar warning receiver (RWR). 100 of the original AH.Mk 1's were ordered. The AH.Mk 9 (or "Battlefield Lynx") became the British Army version of the "Super Lynx" and featured a retractable wheel undercarriage.

Naval variants began with the HAS.Mk 2 (HAS = Helicopter, Anti-Submarine) and could be fielded as an anti-ship or anti-submarine warfare role. The HAS.Mk 2 achieved first flight in February of 1976. The HAS.3 was an improved version and featured sub-variants. The HMA.Mk 8 "Super Lynx" (HMA = Helicopter, Maritime Attack) was an upgraded attack model for maritime usage while other HMA.Mk 8 sub-variants appeared with improved technologies.

The Lynx was the focus of a major export program as well and was sold to a variety of nations in both its army and navy forms. Though the French Army cancelled their need for the Lynx, the French Navy went on to field the helicopter, complete with French systems such as the OMERA-Segid search radar. Operators of the Lynx - in all their varied forms - have included Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, France, Germany, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Qatar and - of course - the United Kingdom. "Super Lynx" represents a successful export venture with nation-specific avionics. Brazil was one of the first export nations to take deliveries of the Super Lynx.

On June 14th, 1984, a prototype of the "Lynx 3" went airborne. The Lynx 3 represented the successor in the Lynx line and was intended primarily as an attack helicopter with potential buyers in France and Germany. This project was basically nullified when the French and Germans geared up to produce their own solution in the Eurocopter Tiger. The Lynx 3 was then officially cancelled in 1987. Development of the Lynx 3 did further the basic Lynx line, allowing Westland to produce the AH.Mk 9, based on the AH.Mk 7.

The Westland 30 (or WG.30) was a derivative designed from the Lynx. This passenger transport model (commercial and military) was based on the army version of the Lynx helicopter and was intended for VIP use. The ill-conceived aircraft was doomed to failure, forcing Westland into bankruptcy (forcing the creation of AgustaWestland), with only 40 of the type constructed - all for civilian use. Operators were limited to India (Pawan Hans), the UK (British Airways, British International Helicopters and Helicopter Hire Ltd) and the United States (Omniflight and Airspur). First flight of the model was achieved on April 10th, 1979.




Leonardo / AgustaWestland Lynx / Super Lynx (Cont'd)

Multi-role Helicopter / Anti-Submarine / Anti-Ship

Leonardo / AgustaWestland Lynx / Super Lynx (Cont'd)

Multi-role Helicopter / Anti-Submarine / Anti-Ship



"Future Lynx" will ensure the Lynx's reach into the new millennium. The revised design features the tailfins as seen on the WG.30, new tail rotor unit, 2 x LHTEC CTS800-4N turboshaft engines, 4,533lb payload, improved countermeasures and IFF, a laser target designator and a new digital cockpit with large multifunction displays (MFDs) numbering four.

Of the total 415 Lynxes produced, 267 of them have been for navy use.

Design

Outwardly, the Lynx featured a forward cockpit area behind the nose assembly for pilot and copilot seated in a side-by-side arrangement with a cabin directly behind. Cabin access was made possible by two windowed cabin doors along either side of the fuselage. The twin turboshaft engines were mounted behind and above the cabin and powered a four-blade, semi-rigid main rotor component along with a four-blade tail rotor on the tail port side. Both blade systems were arranged in a cruciform pattern while the composite tail rotor spins in the opposite direction to reduce operational noise. The main rotor was mounted on a forged titanium hub. The undercarriage could be of a traditional skid system or a three-wheeled retractable undercarriage.

Armament

Armament for the Lynx varied depending on the role it was to play. Anti-submarine versions had provision for 2 x torpedoes (Mk 44, Mk 46, A244S and Stingray types), 2 x Mk 11 depth charges and a dipping sonar system. Anti-surface variants could field 4 x anti-ship missiles (Sea Skua - British Navy / AS.12 wire-guided - French Navy). For basic army attack use, the aircraft could be fitted with x 20mm cannons (on fuselage sides), 2 x 70mm rocket pods or 8 x TOW anti-tank guided missiles (four launch tubes to a side) as required. For all other general purpose battlefield use, the Lynx could be defended with crew -operated pintle-mounted machine guns.

Operational Service

The lynx was available during the British Falklands War with Argentina in its HAS.2 naval form. The only losses occurred in the conflict were landed Lynxes on British ships that were struck by Argentine airborne munitions - none were lost operationally to direct enemy fire however. The Lynx also served the British Army well in monitoring activities in Northern Ireland. Lynxes were then deployed during the first Persian Gulf War of 1991, to which the helicopter system was given credit for engaging Iraqi Navy elements to good effect. The Lynx also saw combat action in the follow-up Invasion of Iraq in 2003. More recently, a Lynx helicopter was hit by an enemy projectile (missile or rocket) on May 6th, 2006, forcing the system to crash into a home, killing all onboard (5). Beyond that activity, the Lynx has proven quite capable of humanitarian and Search and Rescue (SAR) operations as well.

Conclusion

Operationally, the Lynx has succeeded in becoming one of the top helicopter designs of modern warfare (moreso the naval version over the army one). Not only did it prove itself on being an adaptable platform, its performance capabilities earned the respect of many a pilot. The Lynx legacy could very well live on in the proposed "Future Lynx" project - a program set to take all things good of the original Lynx and package it in an all new advanced design with an increased lifespan. Future Lynx is expected to become airborne in 2009 with production examples ready for delivery in 2011. The deal with AgustaWestland and the British MoD could net some 70 to 80 total initial delivery examples with a contract worth 1 billion pounds.

The Lynx anti-tank models in British Army service are being phased out of service by the more capable Boeing/Westland WAH-64 Apache AH.Mk 1 - a British Army equivalent of the American AH-64 Apache attack helicopter.

The Brazilian Navy is intending to modernize a fleet of eight of its Super Lynx helicopters to the newer Mk.21B standard. This model will feature LHTEC CST800-4N turboshaft engines along with an all-glass digital cockpit and upgraded mission computers.




PROGRAM UPDATES

March 2017 - A Lynx helicopter was the host ship used to test the MBDA 'Sea Venom' Anti-Ship Missile (ASM). The Sea Venom will arm both British and French Navy helicopters.

September 2017 - An Mk.21B standard Super Lynx helicopter for the Brazilian Navy recorded its first-flight on September 28th, 2017.

March 2018 - The German Navy has begun studies to replace the fleet of twenty-two Sea Lynx helicopters in service.
MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 200mph
Lo: 100mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (158mph).

    Graph average of 150 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Leonardo Lynx AH.9's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
415
415

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an aircraft cannon pod
Graphical image of an aircraft anti-tank guided missile
Graphical image of an aircraft anti-ship missile
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Graphical image of an aircraft aerial torpedo
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.