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Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat)

United States (1918)

Detailing the development and operational history of the Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat) Long-Range Flying Boat Biplane Aircraft.

 Entry last updated on 9/13/2017; Authored by Staff Writer; Content ©

  Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat)  
Picture of Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat) Long-Range Flying Boat Biplane Aircraft

Only ten Curtiss NC aircraft were purchased during its production run and utilized primarily by the United States Navy over the Atlantic.

World War 1 in Europe prompted all military industries to develop and produce various solutions to ongoing (and some new) problems. The United States eventually formally sided with the Allied powers and began shipping goods and men to Europe in 1917 though these vessels were under constant threat from the dreaded German U-boat submarines plaguing Atlantic waters. In response, the US Navy called for a long-range flying boat that could cross the vast distances of the Atlantic and provide cover for supply ships while also patrol against the German marauders.

The charge eventually fell to the capable Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company concern who had already garnered much experience in the design of boat-like flying boats in years prior (the Curtiss H-16 being one prime example). Production of a new type of flying boat began in 1918 to which a first flight occurred on October 4th, 1918. The Curtiss concern worked to exacting specifications as put forth by the United States Navy Board of Construction and Repair and the result was a large biplane airframe powered by multiple engines. The series took on the designation of Curtiss NC ("NC" for "Navy Curtiss") and initially appeared in a three-engined form as the "NC-1". The US Navy had on order a total of four NC aircraft (NC-1, NC-2, NC-3 and NC-4). The NC was completed with full sleeping quarters and radio facilities for the intended long range flights. In November of that year, the NC-1 set a world record by transporting no fewer than 51 passengers.
Picture of the Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat) Long-Range Flying Boat Biplane Aircraft
Picture of the Curtiss NC (Nancy Boat) Long-Range Flying Boat Biplane Aircraft

Design-wise, the Curtiss NC was very standard for the time, showcasing a very workmanlike appearance. The aircraft featured a boat-like hull for sea operations to which the NC could take-off and land on water as needed. The smooth fuselage was slung under the large biplane wing arrangement that sported parallel struts and lines of cabling for the various control surfaces and reinforced structural points. Small pontoon-like structures were affixed to the lower wing ends to counter tipping when on water. The initial NC-1 mark held three engines fitted side-by-side-by-side at the center of the wing assemblies, this between the upper and lower wing planes. All three engines operated in a "puller" (or "tractor") arrangement. In the NC-2 and later, the three engines benefitted from a fourth engine mounted in a "pusher" arrangement (4 x Liberty L-12 water-cooled V-12 engines of 400 horsepower each). The empennage consisted of a twin-boom design structure with a biplane tailplane section encompassing three vertical tail fins. All six crew positions were open-air including a circular cockpit position at the extreme front end (bow) of the fuselage. The pilot's cockpit was set just aft of this position and ahead of the wing assemblies. A third open-air cockpit was set aft of the wings. Top speed was 90 miles per hour which put it on par with the earlier fighter mounts of the war. Range was out to 1,400 miles while the aircraft could manage a service ceiling of 4,500 feet. While generally unarmed, the NC series could fit aerial machine guns in the front and rear cockpit positions for self-defense. Conceivably, a wartime NC aircraft would have also been outfitted with bombs for attacking submarines and surface warships.

In November of 1918, the Armistice was signed, bringing an end to the fighting in Europe. As such, there was no great need for large-scale military aircraft procurement as in the months before. The US Navy still sought its large flying boat aircraft and development of the NC proceeded as planned (only the NC-1 was delivered to the US Navy before the end of the war). Ultimately, the NC-1 was joined by the NC-2, NC-3 and NC-4 marks. NC-2 was damaged during trials and never flew again while the NC-4 achieved first flight on April 30th, 1919. The remainder aircraft were then used in the first transatlantic flight in May of 1919 which ended with only the NC-4 reaching the intended airstrip at Lisbon, Portugal (by way of Newfoundland and the Azores). NC-1 crashed with her crew being rescued while NC-3 was forced down and "floated" her way to the Azores. Beyond this endeavor, the NC series led a utilitarian life in service to the US Navy. The Navy eventually contracted for six more NC aircraft (NC-5, NC-6, NC-7, NC-8, NC-9 and NC-10) and procurement of these marks continued into the 1920s.

Like the wartime JN-4 "Jenny" biplane trainer, the Curtiss NC series was better known as the "Nancy" or "Nancy Boat" for its "NC" in the designation.
Curtiss NC-4 (Nancy Boat) Specifications
National Flag Graphic
United States
Year: 1918
Type: Long-Range Flying Boat Biplane Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company - USA
Production: 10
Supported Mission Types
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Airborne Early Warning
Electronic Warfare
Aerial Tanker
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Special Forces
Crew: 6
Length: 68.24 ft (20.8 m)
Width: 125.98 ft (38.40 m)
Height: 24.41 ft (7.44 m)
Empty Weight: 16,006 lb (7,260 kg)
MTOW: 28,001 lb (12,701 kg)

Installed Power
4 x Liberty 12A inline piston engines (3 x puller; 1 x pusher) developing 400 horsepower each.

Standard Day Performance
Maximum Speed: 85 mph (137 kph; 74 kts)
Maximum Range: 1,461 mi (2,352 km; 1,270 nm)
Service Ceiling: 24,934 ft (7,600 m; 4.72 mi)

1 x 0.30 caliber machine guns in flexible bow cockpit.
1 x 0.30 caliber machine gun in flexible stern cockpit.

Assumed bombload during war time.

Operators List
United States

Series Model Variants
• NC (Navy Curtiss) - Base Series Designation
• NC-1 - Initial production model; 3 x Liberty V12 engines in tractor configuration; appearing in October 1918.
• NC-2 - Second production model; damaged in accident and cannibalized for parts thereafter; 4 x Liberty V12 engines (3 x puller; 1 x pusher); post-war.
• NC-3 - Third production model; post-war
• NC-4 - Fourth production model; appearing in April 1919; completed first transatlantic flight in May 1919; post-war.
• NC-5 - Fifth production model; post-war
• NC-6 - Sixth production model; post-war
• NC-7 - Seventh production model; post-war
• NC-8 - Eighth production model; post-war
• NC-9 - Ninth production model; post-war
• NC-10 - Final production model; post-war

Supported Weapon Systems
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition

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