STATUS: Active, In-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) - India
LENGTH: 34.78 feet (10.6 meters)
WIDTH: 35.10 feet (10.7 meters)
HEIGHT: 11.94 feet (3.64 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 5,644 pounds (2,560 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 9,337 pounds (4,235 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Rolls-Royce Viper turbojet developing 2,500 lb of thrust.
SPEED (MAX): 432 miles-per-hour (695 kilometers-per-hour; 375 knots)
RANGE: 463 miles (745 kilometers; 402 nautical miles)
CEILING: 30,020 feet (9,150 meters; 5.69 miles)
Detailing the development and operational history of the HAL HJT-16 Kiran (Ray of Light) Intermediate-Advanced Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft.
Entry last updated on 7/3/2018.
Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
Not content with relying on purchase of foreign military goods, the nation of India has long been nurturing an aeronautics industry. This has produced a mixed bag of results which has keep a focus on foreign suppliers, making India the biggest military customer in the world today (2015). However, some programs did in fact yield fruit such as the HAL "Kiran" ("Ray of Light") which became an indigenous two-seat intermediate jet trainer. The type has served through over 200 total examples across the Indian Air Force (IAF) and Indian Navy since its introduction in 1968. Design work was held out of Bangalore in 1961 and a first flight was had on September 4th, 1964.
The Kiran emerged from an IAF requirement calling for an intermediate/advanced jet trainer capable of preparing Indian pilots for the subtleties of high performance, jet-powered flight. This led to an aircraft of largely conventional design sporting unswept, low-mounted monoplane wings, a single-finned tail arrangement and a tricycle undercarriage. Its crew numbered two and were arranged in a wide cockpit offering side-by-side seating with good vision around the forward section of the aircraft. The cockpit was situated well-forward in the design and aft of a short nosecone assembly. Having passed its tests and evaluation phase, the design was adopted for service under the "Kiran" name with initial models designated "Mk I".
HAL manufactured 24 preproduction Mk I models with deliveries coming in 1968 and 118 further Mk I aircraft followed. These early series models were outfitted with the British Bristol (Rolls-Royce) "Viper" turbojet engine and lacked underwing hardpoints for weapons training. The latter was rectified through the Mk IA which resulted in 72 built to this standard, now featuring two hardpoints under each wing for rocket pods, conventional drop stores and / or machine gun pods to fulfill a light attack function. Additionally, they were plumbed for fuel delivery by way of jettisonable external tanks. Official Indian Air Force Academy service entry of the Mk I was in 1973 and a small stock also fell to the Indian Navy.
As completed, the Mk IA carried the Viper turbojet of 2,500 lb thrust output. Its maximum speed reached 430 miles per hour with cruising speeds being around 200 mph. The listed service ceiling was 30,000 feet.
The Mk II was an improved model outfitted with the Rolls-Royce "Orpheus" engine of 4,200 lb thrust. A prototype went airborne for the first time on July 30th, 1976 and added two 7.62mm ADEN machine guns in the nose as well as updated hydraulics. The new jet was both a better performance and better hauler over the original but it's loaded range and night capabilities limited interest to the point that development of the model did not officially conclude until 1983. Sixty-one Mk II aircraft then arrived beginning in March of 1985 and deliveries continued until 1989. Again the Indian Navy received some (six) Mk II models.
The Kiran series is currently set to be replaced by the in-development HAL HJY-36 series advanced trainers which is a much more modern alternative. Both are the product of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) of India.
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General Assessment (BETA)
Rating: 60 (of 100)
The rating is an internal assessment derived from forty factors pertaining to this entry.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
This entry's maximum listed speed (432mph).
Graph average of 375 miles-per-hour.
Graph showcases the HAL HJT-16 Kiran IA's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units