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Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)

Anti-Submarine Bomber

Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)

Anti-Submarine Bomber


Though ordered in 1942, the Kyushu Q1W Tokai arrived in the final year of World War 2.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: Imperial Japan
YEAR: 1945
MANUFACTURER(S): Kyushu Aiircraft Company - Japan
OPERATORS: Imperial Japan

Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
LENGTH: 39.67 feet (12.09 meters)
WIDTH: 52.49 feet (16 meters)
HEIGHT: 13.52 feet (4.12 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 6,839 pounds (3,102 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 11,724 pounds (5,318 kilograms)
ENGINE: 2 x Hitachi Amakaze-31 9-cylinder radial piston engines delivering 610 horsepower each.
SPEED (MAX): 200 miles-per-hour (322 kilometers-per-hour; 174 knots)
RANGE: 834 miles (1,342 kilometers; 725 nautical miles)
CEILING: 14,731 feet (4,490 meters; 2.79 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 751 feet-per-minute (229 meters-per-minute)

1 x 7.7mm Type 92 rear-firing machine gun on flexible mounting.

2 x 550lb bombs OR depth charges
1 OR 2 x 20mm Type 99 forward-firing cannon(s)
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition

Series Model Variants
• Q1W1 - Single Prototype
• Q1W1 "Tokai" Mark 11 - Initial Production Model
• Q1W2 Mark 21 - Revised production model with wooden tail surfaces.
• Q1W1-K "Tokai-Ren" - Trainer Conversion Model; seating for four personnel; all-wood construction; single example produced.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Kyushu Q1W Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna) Anti-Submarine Bomber.  Entry last updated on 5/10/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
The Kyushu Q1W "Tokai" (translating to "Eastern Sea" and codenamed "Lorna" by the Allies) was an anti-submarine bomber utilized by the Empire of Japan in the last year of World War 2. The type was produced in limited numbers and fielded from land bases despite its use by the Imperial Japanese Navy. The aircraft was remembered for being underpowered for the task at hand but serviceable enough to be ordered into quantitative production as the world's first purpose-built dedicated anti-submarine aircraft in the world. Only some 153 examples were ever produced.

In late 1942, the Imperial Japanese Navy delivered its requirements for the development of the "17-shi" aircraft, a specialized anti-submarine platform under the formal designation of "Navy Patrol Plane Tokai". Japan was beginning to suffer increasing losses from American submarine activities in the Pacific and tons upon tons of wartime goods were being lost on a monthly basis across Japanese shipping lanes in the Theater. The aircraft firm Kyushu (formerly Watanabe) delivered the Q1W "Tokai" and first flight was achieved in September of 1943. The aircraft proved to have good handling qualities and an evaluation period followed. The system would not enter production until 1944, becoming operational in January of 1945. Working against the aircraft was also the fact that an intended advanced search radar was not installed and the Tokai would have to make do with a limited search radar system instead. In practice, the Tokai was done in by her underpowered engines and slow speed, becoming fodder for Allied fighter planes who themselves were ever-increasing in speed and firepower. The Japanese Empire would capitulate by the end of August 1945 and the legacy of the Tokai would effectively be ended in turn - along with any other Japanese war-making instruments.

Though often compared externally to the Junkers Ju 88 medium bomber, the Japanese Q1W held little direct relation to her German contemporary. The Tokai was in fact a dimensionally smaller overall design and charged with a more dedicated battlefield role. She shared the same "pencil" shaped fuselage appearance to which was affixed the heavily glazed upper crew compartment at the extreme forward end. The nose and forward fuselage floor was also heavily glazed to provide for adequate views for the bombardier. The fuselage was tubular and tapered off into a conventional empennage with a single vertical tail fin and a pair of high-mounted horizontal planes. Wings were cantilever mid-to-low-monoplanes mounted along the sides of the forward fuselage with large wing root surface areas and noticeable dihedral (upward angle). A single, stubby radial engine installation was underslung to each wing in partially-contoured nacelles. Each engine powered a three-bladed propeller system and sported noticeable conical propeller hubs. The undercarriage was traditional for the time, featuring two main single-wheeled landing gear legs and a diminutive single-wheeled tail wheel leg. The main landing gears semi-recessed into their respective engine nacelles. Crew accommodations amounted to three personnel.

Armament was purely defensive, and somewhat adequate for a military aircraft of this classification. A rear-firing 7.7mm Type 92 machine gun was fitted to a flexible mount in the rear of the crew cabin while one or two 20mm Type 99 forward-firing cannons were sometimes fitted as optional. Internally, the Q1W1 could make use of up to 1,100lbs of ordnance made up of bombs (2 x 550lbs) or depth charges, the latter for submarine hunting sorties.

Production of the Kyushu Q1W was severely limited and therefore only a handful of designations existed for its variants. Q1W1 was used to designated the single prototype and its Mark 11 first-run production model, the "Eastern Sea". Q1W2 represented the Mark 21 production model differentiated by its use of wood along the tail surfaces. Q1W1-K "Tokai-Ren" ("Eastern Sea-Trainer") was a single example four-seat trainer that never materialized in number.

The Q1W1 reported the following performance specifications from its twin Hitachi Amakaze-31 series 9-cylinder radial piston engines, each rated at 610 horsepower: Maximum speed of 201 miles per hour with a range of 839 miles. Service ceiling was limited to 14,730 feet with a rate-of-climb equaling 751 feet-per-minute. Empty weight was 6,839lbs with a maximum take-off weight of 11,720lbs.

As the Japanese war effort crumbled, Q1W1's were utilized in the role of dastardly Kamikaze suicide strikes against Allied naval vessels.


Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 200mph
Lo: 100mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (200mph).

Graph average of 150 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Kyushu Q1W1 Tokai (Eastern Sea) / (Lorna)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
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Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (153)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

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