STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Republic Aviation Corporation - USA
OPERATORS: Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Columbia; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; France; Nazi Germany (captured); Honduras; Iran; Kingdom of Italy; Mexico; Nicaragua; Peru; Philippines; Portugal; Soviet Union; Taiwan; Turkey; United Kingdom; United States; Venezuela; Yugoslavia
LENGTH: 36.15 feet (11.02 meters)
WIDTH: 40.68 feet (12.4 meters)
HEIGHT: 14.67 feet (4.47 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 9,949 pounds (4,513 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 17,500 pounds (7,938 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Pratt & Whitney R-2800-59 "Double-Wasp" 18-cylinder radial piston engine developing 2,535 horsepower.
SPEED (MAX): 433 miles-per-hour (697 kilometers-per-hour; 376 knots)
RANGE: 449 miles (722 kilometers; 390 nautical miles)
CEILING: 40,994 feet (12,495 meters; 7.76 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 3,200 meters (975 meters-per-minute)
Detailing the development and operational history of the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft.
Entry last updated on 8/6/2018.
Authored by Dan Alex. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
While much of the romance of World War 2 dogfighting often heads in the direction of the United States Army Air Forces' (USAAF) North American P-51 "Mustang" or the Vought F4U "Corsair", the Republic P-47 "Thunderbolt" (affectionately nicknamed "the Jug") stands second to none when considering her global reach, her contributions to the air and ground war (in all theaters), and the fact that she was produced more than any other American fighter of the war.
Though not too pretty to look at, the Thunderbolt had "it" where it counted - through her stressed metal skin, robust airframe and powerful engine. Her weight never made her a prominent close-up dogfighting champion but this drawback allowed her to excel in "dive and zoom" attacks against enemy fighters while proving her equally adept at ground strikes accomplished through the battery of eight heavy machine guns, 5-inch rockets and conventional bombs. In the end, this unsung hero of World War 2 proved that she played second fiddle to no one - regardless how sexy a design she was up against. The P-47 proved such a fearsome foe that Axis infantrymen on the ground dreaded the day they would have to encounter the "Fatty from Farmingdale" coming out of the skies with her eight machine guns ablaze. The Thunderbolt served in every major combat theater of World War 2.
Alexander de Seversky
Alexander Nikolaivitch Prokofiev de Seversky was born into a wealthy aristocratic family in Tiflis, Georgia, then part of the Russian Empire. Though thousands of miles away from any American city, this family name would help to one day bring about the creation of the fabled P-47. As no one thing was out of reach for such a family, one of the prizes under Seversky ownership became one of the first airplanes in the country of Russia. As such, Alexander Seversky learned to fly at an early age and a passion for all things flight and an equal passion for all things mechanical soon evolved from within. Seversky was then enrolled in military school by age 10 and went on to graduate from the Russian Imperial Naval Academy in 1914. By the time of World War 1, he was stationed aboard a destroyer as a sailor with the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea but his first passion remained flying - and he was quite good at it. Shortly after 1915, he transferred out of the Navy and attended the Military School of Aeronautics only to return to the Russian Navy - this time as a pilot.
After his re-assignment, Seversky was installed into one of Russia's burgeoning flying squadrons. He was charged as pilot of a two-man bombers with a comrade - the observer/rear gunner - in the second cockpit. Seversky took to the air in what may have felt like a "routine" (if there's anything routine about combat) mission against German destroyers. During the initial attack, his aircraft took serious ground fire, foiling the attack and forcing the aircraft into the sea. To add insult to this mishap, the unexploded ordnance under the wings now detonated, instantly killing his observer and severely mutilating Seversky's leg. While eventually rescued, Russian doctors were forced to amputate the damage leg and Seversky's flying career was all but over.
Recovered from his wounds and now fitted with a wooden leg, Seversky set out to reclaim his former position as a flyer with the Russian air service. While his superiors balked at such a notion, Seversky illegally took to the skies in an aircraft during an aerial exhibition complete with high ranking Russian military officials in attendance. While his airborne actions proved him a sound pilot still, Seversky was promptly incarcerated for his actions but later pardoned by Czar Nicholas II. Seversky was then granted his flight status once more and was airborne in 1916. From there, Alexander Seversky went on to become the Russian Navy's leading combat ace, accruing somewhere between 6 to 13 kills (sources vary widely on this account). Leg or no leg, Seversky was going to fly as long as his heart was beating.
This is Pure Bolshevik!
In 1917, Seversky was part of an envoy sent to the United States to study aeronautical practices and construction techniques throughout the country. America was home to the assembly line and it seemed the perfect place for any developing industrial powerhouse to take notes. However, 1918 saw Russia fall to the Bolsheviks, putting Seversky - with his wealthy aristocracy origins - in jeopardy and dissolved any notion of returning safely to his motherland. As such, he elected to remain in the United States where his combat background and engineering talents were put to use with Curtiss Aeroplane. Seversky served as both test pilot and aeronautical engineer for the firm eventually having his hard work rewarded by a promotion to Major in the US Army Air Corps Reserve.
An entrepreneur at heart, Seversky was quick to protect his innovations when it came to aircraft development. While securing a patent for an early air-to-air refueling technique, he also made headway in the development of a bombsight system which he developed with help from the Sperry Gyroscope Company, also netting Seversky a patent to protect this work. The US military purchased the rights to the bombsight system in 1923 for the large sum of $50,000 and this proved a sound financial ground for which Seversky could begin his own company - aptly named the Seversky Aero Company. However, the financial Crash of 1929 did this first venture in.
Undeterred, Seversky persevered and, netting additional funding from outside parties, began Seversky Aircraft in 1931. He tapped former fellow Russian (Georgian) engineer Alexander Kartveli who had made his home in Paris after the fall of Russia to the Bolsheviks in 1918. The firm found some early success with their new SEV-3 Sport Amphibian aircraft. The three-man aircraft was capable of landings on land and water and garnered a US military contract for production as the BT-8 trainer.
Motivated by the success of the BEV-3, Seversky pursued more advanced designs. His firm moved to Farmingdale, Long Island, to a more spacious outcropping in an effort to build their Army BT-8 trainers. A new competition netted another contract for the Seversky P-35. The P-35 was hardly a burner at 260 miles per hour, but more "modern" fighters with enclosed cockpits and stressed metal skins were needed by the US Army nonetheless. Developments in Europe by this time far outclassed American aircraft by what seemed like leaps and bounds. Regardless, the P-35 entered service in 1938 but were sorely out of date by the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941.
The P-43 Lancer
A new Seversky demonstrator was already in the works, this fitted with a General Electric supercharger coupled to a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial piston engine and designated by the company as the AP-4 - essentially an improved form of the P-35. The Army liked what it saw and granted a contract for 13 evaluation models to be designated as the YP-43 "Lancer". By the end of 1939, Seversky himself went off to England to try and sell his products with the hope of netting more lucrative wartime contracts from desperate European nations looking to match up to the might of the German war machine. It was during this time that the Seversky company Board of Directors delivered a no-confidence vote for Alexander Seversky and ousted as company president. The firm was reformed under the Republic Aviation name and retained the services of Alexander Kartveli as chief engineer for the firm. Seversky himself was out of the picture.
Work on the Lancer continued. The YP-43 was fitted with 2 x .30 caliber machine guns and 2 x 50 caliber heavy machine guns but did not feature self-sealing fuel tanks nor protective armoring for the pilot. The P-43 Lancer entered limited production but did not prove an answer for the US Army. An improved form of the aircraft emerged as the P-44 "Rocket", to which the US Army became quite enthusiastic about, but unfolding events in Europe quickly deflated such enthusiasm. As the Army looked to the air war ongoing over France and Britain, it realized that even the "Rocket" could not accomplish in combat what the nimble fighters over in Europe were doing. These aircraft sported sleek designed frames with relatively powerful in-line, liquid-cooled engines and equally powerful armament to boot. The Army made out a wish list for their next fighter and found that it required an interceptor capable of at least 400 miles per hour at 25,000 feet with an armament of at least 6 x .50 caliber machine guns, long range and protection for the pilot and fuel tanks for extended ranges.
With war inching ever closer, time was of the essence. A new Republic design centered around the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled V-12 in-line piston engine - closely resembling the powerplant found on the streamlined Bell P-39 Airacobras, Curtiss P-40 Warhawks and the Lockheed P-38 Lightnings. The design took the company designation of AP-10 and, by 1939, Kartveli had completed drawings for the aircraft consisting of the smallest possible airframe. He added some impressive performance estimates that saw the new aircraft hit speeds of 415 miles per hour (in theory). The experimental section of the US Army, based out of Wright Field, took a closer look and offered some subtle changes that included a slightly larger overall airframe with added weight and more surface area. Two hardpoints were set under each wing and armament was a strange pairing of 1 x .30 caliber machine gun and 1 x .50 caliber machine in the upper cowling.
Sensing good things from the preliminary design and, more importantly, still in dire need of modern fighters, the US Army rushed to get the AP-10 into production under the prototype designation of XP-47. The program would begin development in two complete airframes - the XP-47 and the XP-47A. The XP-47 was a full-fledged offering complete with combat armament while the XP-47A would be a flight test model sans combat options but intended to test out the design's validity in controlled experiments. The program was given a window of nine months to produce the end products.
Further review of the XP-47 design by the US Army funding department (those in control of the money) forced yet more revisions. The wing surface area - deemed too small on the original design - was enlarged and an additional .30 caliber and .50 caliber machine gun were added. Self-sealing fuel tanks and armoring were also now included. These options of course drove up the overall weight of the aircraft that was intended to be an interceptor - if an interceptor could not climb within reason, it was no longer considered an interceptor.
Back to the Drawing Board - the XP-47B: the True Thunderbolt Prototype
By this time, the war in Europe was changing on a monthly basis as were the tactics and technology. Pratt & Whitney unveiled their R-2800 Double Wasp, two-row, 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine and rated their massive product at 2,000 horsepower. Though more fuel-thirsty than the original Allison in-line to be used, the Double Wasp promised much more in the way of output and performance over her predecessor. Kartveli tried a second design attempt to fit this new engine into an applicable airframe as the diminutive AP-10 was much too small to handle such a powerplant. The stout new design emerged with 6 x .50 caliber machine guns fitted to the wings, adequate armor protection, self-sealing fuel tanks, large surface areas and an operational weight of 12,000lbs. This new design was given the designation of XP-47B while the XP-47 and XP-47A quickly fell into oblivion, the two ultimately cancelled in full. The US Army was smitten with the prospect of this large 400 mile-per-hour beast and quickly placed a 773-strong production order for the XP-47B on September 6th, 1942 - this before a single prototype was even made available. Amazingly, only one XP-47B would be built while no service test models (YP-47Bs) were ordered - quite the departure for the careful, though now desperate, US Army.
What a Turbosupercharger (or Turbocharger) Actually Does
High altitude performance was a necessity in the new design as dogfights cared little of operational ceilings. As such, a large and complicated turbosupercharger (also known as a turbocharger) was deemed a must for such activities. The turbosupercharger essentially provided for sea level-rated operations at altitudes up to the engine's critical altitude - that is - the maximum altitude an engine could sustain its rated horsepower output at without seeing a decrease in performance. The turbosupercharger featured a turbine that was driven by exhaust gasses from the engine as well as a compressor with a high-speed impeller that pressurized the incoming air. The resulting action produced high-pressure, high-density air which was then re-delivered to the engine to maintain an applicable output at higher altitudes.
Republic engineers placed this system behind the cockpit in an effort to maintain a proper center of gravity and improve stability. The turbosupercharger would then require ductwork to run to and from the engine/turbosupercharger to deliver the gasses for the required boost in performance. Once implemented, this duct system forced the XP-47B to take on a "deep" look fuselage and gave the P-47 its universally identifiable profile but, at the same time, added much-needed room for internal fuel stores to power the thirsty Pratt & Whitney.
The fuselage was affixed to two elliptical wing assemblies complete with rounded edges. The wings would contain the primary standard armament, applicable ammunition stores and main landing gears. The tail surfaces were encased in fabric covering for the time being while the rest of the body was of all-metal stressed skin. The Pratt & Whitney powerplant needed a quality propeller system to make the most out of the horsepower output and, as such, a 12 foot, 2 inch diameter four-blade propeller system was selected to cap the nose of the XP-47B. A new problem quickly arose, however, in implementing such a large diameter propeller blade. The tall propeller system needed clearance along the ground during take-off and landing. Rather than produce an ungainly looking bird with obscenely long landing gear legs, a telescoping landing gear leg system was devised where the assembly could extend out to 9 inches when lowered and retract that length when the leg was pulled up. This issue was not unlike the issue forced onto the designers of the Vought F4U Corsair fitting their own large three-blade propeller. In that particular case, the engineers elected to use an inverted "gull" wing to offset the need for height. Ingenuity for the Americans seemed to come naturally at this time. Unlike production P-47s, the XP-47B featured a canopy that was hinged over to the side with an automobile-style entry/exit door. This would later be replaced after the system was prone to jamming and proved too cumbersome during emergency exits via parachute.
Flight Testing of the XP-47B
The XP-47B was finally constructed to the new specifications by Republic to which the name of "Thunderbolt" was officially assigned (the US had not been in the habit of naming its military creations until the British did so with American Lend-Lease tanks and aircraft). The XP-47B achieved first flight over Farmingdale, Long Island, on May 6th, 1941 and - at the time - became the largest piston-powered single-engine fighter aircraft to fly (not to mention the most expensive). The XP-47B was flown to a US Army base at Mitchel Field for a perfect landing. By all accounts, the large aircraft was a winner despite some oil falling burning off of the turbosupercharger and consequently filling the cockpit with black smoke. After the first flight, some further recommendations bought about more fine tuning including the use of a pressurized ignition harness, wing stiffeners to combat flutter and a new type of engine oil lubricant.
One of the biggest items of note to come out of further testing of the XP-47B was the diving prowess of the airframe. One such power dive netted a speed of 550 miles per hour, pulling off the fabric covering over the tail surfaces in the process. Other items of note included the need for vast amounts of runway required to help the "Heavy" take off as well as a "control freeze" situation encountered by the control surfaces during steep dives - both could prove fatal to the untrained Thunderbolt pilot if not respected.
The P-47B is Delivered
Four early-production Thunderbolts (their hinged cockpits replaced in favor of a rearward sliding "greenhouse" type) soon emerged and, after similar power dive incidents involving torn fabric on the tail surfaces (one such incident leading to the death of a Republic test pilot), the surfaces were covered over in all-metal stressed skin. The first operational-level P-47B was officially handed over to the US Army on May 26th, 1942. In an effort to test out the new aircraft while at the same time garnering valuable experience to new pilots, the US Army formed the 56th Fighter Group squadron at Farmingdale to defend the northeast American coast from the fears of German bombers encroaching across US airspace. The learning curve for these lads was not a light-hearted affair for the squadron would lose up to half of their delivered Thunderbolts to accidents (13 pilots killed while 14 airframes were lost).
One hundred seventy-one P-47B production Thunderbolts were produced at the Republic Farmingdale plant in a short 6 months. The P-47C underwent extensive flight trials with the US Army who then ultimately deemed it clear for operational combat. In practice, the P-47 proved to have a tremendous roll rate, better than that of any current US fighter, and offered many exceptional qualities considering her size. No doubt the "greenhouse" canopy, raised fuselage spine and massive engine mounting curtailed pilot vision but, in all, she was a fantastic creation from the people at Republic. Her range was shorter than anticipated no thanks to the Pratt & Whitney powerplant and her rate-of-climb clearly put her out of the interceptor category altogether but she was something that no current US fighter could match.
Production was already underway at the Republic plant at Farmingdale but demand was such that a new plant was opened up at Evansville, Indiana and Curtiss-Wright was also enlisted to license-produce the type at their Buffalo, New York facility. With production ramping up and the US Army ready for action, the P-47C Thunderbolt was crated up and shipped by boat to England for final assembly and squadron training. The first shipment arrived on the British Isle on December 20th, 1942.
The Thunderbolt's stout appearance makes her one of the most memorable American warplanes of World War 2. Her size was necessitated by the addition of the turbosupercharger and all her applicable ductwork, causing the deep fuselage to take shape. The turbocharger helped to balance the design and featured large diameter ductwork running from charger to engine and back. The large air-cooled Pratt & Whitney Double Wasp engine was contained in the extreme forward of the fuselage, which itself was more elliptical in shape - almost an upside down egg when viewed from the front - than one might realize at first glance. A four-bladed Hamilton-Standard propeller (later refitted with a Curtiss Electric unit) was fitted to a simple spinner at the opening of the engine and intake duct openings were readily present just under the engine face. Wings were of the monoplane type and low-mounted, somewhat forward, along the slender streamlined fuselage. The cockpit was placed just above and slightly ahead of the wing trailing edges. The main wings themselves - another distinguishable characteristic of the P-47 and purely a Republic trademark - were elliptical in shape, sporting rounded edges with a straight leading edge and tapered trailing edge while showcasing some dihedral in the forward profile. The cockpit was situated at about the midway point of the fuselage and early Thunderbolts maintained the "razorback" spine that contoured into the top portion of the empennage. The empennage was dominated by a small-area vertical stabilizer and a pair of horizontal stabilizers. The fuselage progressively tapered down to a rounded cap at the base of the tail.
The keen observer will note the P-47s outward resemblance to Seversky's/Republic's earlier design attempts in the Seversky P-35 and Republic P-43 Lancer respectively.
Both Axis and Allied pilots having the pleasure of flying the P-47 noted the type's exceptionally roomy interior. The cockpit (P-47D) sported clean lines and clustered major dial groups that were well-placed. The pilot sat in what was sometimes termed a "lounge chair" by some and air conditioning was standard. The forward instrument panel was dominated by the top-mounted K-14A gunsight. All major in-flight readings (navigation, altitude) were situated along the upper half of the panel while engine and fuel controls took over the lower half. Bomb/tank selectors were clustered on a panel along the lower left side of the forward instrument group with the throttle to the pilot's left-hand side. The throttle contained a rotating handle to adjust the scale of the gunsight in an effort to keep important controls within reach at all times. Overall control of the aircraft was accomplished through a conventional flight stick with integrated trigger. Rudders were set under the forward instrument panel at the pilot's feet and could be folded down for long flights allowing the pilot to stretch his legs some.
Vision from the cockpit was remembered as adequate to good. Considering the pilot's seat was situated well behind the large engine, this was expected. The large-area main wings also obscured downward vision and the "razorback" raised spines in early-form Thunderbolts didn't help vision to the "six". The implementation of a British-based "teardrop" bubble canopy alleviated the latter problem and much of the heavy framing of the early "greenhouse" canopies was lost in the process. Test pilots of the new canopy were elated at the refreshed vision out of the cockpit. The new canopy slid rearwards (as opposed to the early side-opening ones) to allow for pilot entry/exit and was first utilized on a modified P-47D-5 (as the XP-47K) in the summer of 1943.
The undercarriage was typical of the time and categorized the P-47 as a "tail dragger". The arrangement consisted of two single-wheeled telescoping main landing gear legs (one to a wing) and a diminutive tail wheel under the base of the empennage. The main legs recessed inward under the wings toward the fuselage centerline while the tail wheel was equally as retractable at the base of the empennage. When at rest, this configuration gave the Thunderbolt a noticeable "nose-up" appearance and made for very poor vision out of the cockpit when taxiing into position. The large diameter four-blade propeller necessitated the use of long legs to help the aircraft clear a runway without the blades hitting the surface of the pavement.
The Thunderbolt's wings were constructed with two major spars running nearly the length of the each wing. Spars were charged with the handling of flight loads when airborne and the carrying the wing's weight when on the ground . Republic engineered each Thunderbolt wing assembly to fit 4 x M2 Browning air-cooled .50 caliber heavy machine guns in a staggered arrangement. The P-47 was the only American fighter aircraft to wield this many machine guns (20mm cannon armament was considered early on but dropped from contention). The staggered formation of these machine guns allowed for effective feeding of the systems from four separate ammunition holds. The power of these combined eight machine guns could effectively engage fighters and bombers while being of equal value when tackling ground-based targets. A single burst was enough to down most any aircraft. Such armament could output a staggering 13lbs of blazing hot ammunition on a target per second.
In addition to its formidable machine gun battery, the P-47 made a living under the clouds for German troops a pure hell. With underwing mounts, she could field up to 2,500lbs of conventional drop bombs or 10 x 5-inch unguided HVAR rockets useful against ground- and water-based targets. Drop tanks could be carried in place of munitions and situated along the fuselage centerline (x1) or underwing (x2).
One known conversion of a P-47 attempted to mount 2 x underwing Oldsmobile 20mm cannons. While an awesome prospect in theory, the fitting proved a disappointment in practice, adding unnecessary drag and thusly lowering the Thunderbolt's top speed by 50 miles per hour. This single P-47 was eventually converted back to her base operating form with standard armament.
The Variants (In Alphabetical Order)
The XP-47B was fitted with a Pratt & Whitney R-2800-17 radial piston engine of 2,000 horsepower attached to a 12 feet, 2 inch diameter Curtiss Electric four-blade propeller. The aircraft sported an empty weight of 9,189lbs and a gross weight of 12,700lbs. Maximum speed was listed at 412 miles per hour at 25,800 feet with a maximum range of 1,150 miles at 10,000 feet. Five hundred rounds of .50 caliber ammunition were afforded her 8 x guns.
The P-47B mounted the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-21 series radial piston engine of 2,000 horsepower and entered production in 1942 with deliveries to the USAAF in England beginning in early 1943. At least 171 P-47B production models were delivered. Many B-models were eventually relegated as trainers to get the young pilots use to these large and heavy mounts - truly no American aircraft before it could match the qualities (and drawbacks in some cases) of this heavy hitter from Farmingdale. The P-47B maintained a maximum speed of 429 miles per hour with a range of 550 miles. The service ceiling was listed at 42,000 feet with a rate-of-climb equaling 2,560 feet per minute. A "one-off" reconnaissance form was built with the designation of RP-47B.
While essentially similar to the B-models before them, the P-47C brought about a more powerful engine series in an lengthened fuselage as well as implementation of a droppable belly fuel tank (or bomb if need be). The external fuel tank finally allowed for sorties to Berlin and back. The fuselage was extended by a full 8 inches which allowed engineers to move the engine forward some and improve the Thunderbolt's center of gravity. The addition of the centerline hardpoint added ground attack capabilities to the Thunderbolt's toolbox. The tail section was further strengthened to counteract the resulting stress of those power dives and a 30 gallon water tank was added to "fuel" the water injection system of R-2800-59 engined Thunderbolts. The first 112 P-47C models were fitted with the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-21 radial engine of 2,000 horsepower as the R-2800-59 series engines (and their respective water-injection systems) were not yet available. As such, only later versions carried the improved radials with the increase of almost 300 horsepower. At least 602 C-models were produced.
P-47C models sported an empty weight of 9,900lbs with a maximum weight of 14,925lbs. Maximum speed was 420 miles per hour at 30,000 feet with a service ceiling of 42,000 feet and a range of 835 miles at 10,000 feet. 300 to 425 rounds were afforded to her 8 x .50 caliber machine guns.
The All-Important D-Model...
The P-47D entered production from early 1943 onwards and proved the definitive Thunderbolt in the family line, arriving in Britain in April. A more powerful engine with water injection (known as "War Emergency Power" or "WEP", used for short enhancements of performance) greeted the design. The turbocharger was revised through better ductwork providing for improved efficiency. The pilot's position was granted more protective armoring and engine controls were simplified while landing gear tires were fabricated as "multi-ply" to take on the roughest of airfields. Three drop tanks could now be fitted and underwing hardpoints (the P-47D-15 and on) could now sport a 1,000lb bomb (one to a wing) or 10 x 5-inch rockets (5 to a wing). While an impressive armament load, this often meant that ammunition counts for the machine guns had to be reduced to compensate for the added weight. In some cases, a pair of machine guns were eliminated altogether. Later production D-models fitted the all-important bubble canopy which did away with the raise fuselage spine, improving pilot vision to his "six" ten-fold. It was not uncommon for D-models to be shipped unpainted from Republic factories, these appearing in their all silver bare metal finish, and saw a slight increase to performance. A mind-boggling 12,602 D-models made their way out of the factory doors and production constituted four large batches.
The P-47D was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-59 Double Wasp 18-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine of 2,535 horsepower (or R-2800-21W of 2,300 horsepower with water-injection). She operated with an empty weight of 9,950lb and a maximum take-off weight of 17,500lb. Performance included a top speed of 433 miles per hour, a service ceiling of 41,000 feet, a rate-of-climb equal to 3,200 feet-per-minute and a range of 1,900 miles with three drop tanks in tow. The maximum external ordnance weight limit was approximately 2,500lb. Standard armament included the 8 x wing-mounted M2 Browning air-cooled heavy machine guns.
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt (Cont'd)
Fighter / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft
...With a Few Test Developments In-between
The XP-47E was generated for the final P-47B. This developmental model came complete with a hinged canopy, Hamilton Standard propeller and pressurized cockpit used to trial the Pratt & Whitney R-2800-59 radial engine.
The XP-47F model was plucked from a P-47B and modified as a test-bed for laminar-flow wings. Testing revealed that the new wings would not improve performance much and the aircraft soldiered on in other related flight tests thereafter. She was officially lost in a fatal accident on October 14th, 1943.
Rough-Hewn P-47's From Curtiss-Wright
The P-47G was the designation assigned to Curtiss-Wright built Thunderbolts and were essentially C-models reincarnated under the Curtiss-Wright production banner. Quality control was somewhat lacking at the Curtiss-Wright plant in Buffalo, New York, and production as a whole was rather slow - this being much different than the standards at the Republic facility or the Indiana plant. As such, production of G-models was limited to a low total of 354 examples before the plant was closed. Many of these Thunderbolts remained stateside for pilot training, never to see combat action.
Another Few Developmental P-47s
The XP-47H was an interesting P-47 development in that it attempted to mate the P-47 airframe with the Chrysler XI-2220-1 16-cylinder, inverted-vee, liquid-cooled engine of 2,300 to 2,500 horsepower (sources vary). Two P-51D-15 models were used in this conversion test sans their armament. The complicated and untested engine proved highly unfeasible and overly complicated to fit into the existing airframe without major modifications. As such, the project was dropped. First flight was achieved in July of 1945, achieving a paltry 414 miles per hour for the USAAF - far lower than the projected 490 miles per hour originally envisioned (and reportedly reached) by Republic. Range was approximated to 700 miles.
The XP-47J was a Republic attempt to reduce the overall weight of the airframe while increasing the overall output of the engine. The original idea was to fit an R-2800-61 with a contra-rotating propeller system mated to a General Electric turbosupercharger. When an effective propeller solution was not found, a basic paddle type from Curtiss was fitted instead as was a Pratt & Whitney R-2800-57 of 2,800 horsepower. Armament was reduced to 6 x .50 caliber machine guns and internal fuel capacity was lowered. The engine gave up the ghost after just 10 hours of total flight time and needed replacing. The XP-47J went on to clock an impressive 500 miles per hour in March of 1944. After Army testing revealed less than the 500 mile per hour figure, coupled with the fact that the XP-47J would require essentially an all-new tool production line, the project was dropped in favor of the XP-72 "Wasp Major" Super Thunderbolt development. The XP-72 proved an impressive beast herself but the changing war environment negated the need for such an implement and she was never produced.
The XP-47K was an experimental P-47D production model fitted with a Hawker Typhoon bubble canopy and cut-down rear fuselage spine to help improve pilot vision to his all-important rear quarter. The fuselage fuel tank was increased to a degree and several exterior modifications ensued. Test flights of the new aircraft were positive and the variant was put into production alongside D-models. The XP-47K was later modified to test out the wings that would eventually appear on the definitive P-47N long-range models.
The P-47 Hotrod
The P-47M was in many ways a "special edition" Thunderbolt sprinter/hotrod designed as superfast interceptor. This mount would be charged with chasing down Germany's fast V-1 flying bombs randomly terrorizing Londoners. Essentially P-47D-30 models incarnate, M-models appeared in December of 1944 and boasted a top speed of 473 miles per hour from her somewhat troublesome R-2800-57(C) radial of 2,800 horsepower ranged out to 530 miles. The turbosupercharger was once again refined for the better and a Curtiss Electric propelled was utilized. Special airbrakes were installed on the aircraft so she could decelerate quickly once in range of her target. Though faster than the fastest P-51 Mustang available, this P-47 still suffered from a thirsty radial and limited range. As well as any V-1 rockets she might have bagged, the M-model also boasted kills against the Messerschmitt Me 262 Schwalbe jet-powered fighter and Arado Ar 234 "Blitz" jet-powered bomber (albeit these were in the most perfect of circumstances and conditions favoring the passing Thunderbolt, hardly a straight-up dogfight with either). Some 130 M-models were produced though quality control at wartime's frenetic pace developed many mechanical problems for this Thunderbolt batch. M-models were not made available until April of 1945 - essentially the closing months of the war.
Definitive P-47: the N Model
The P-47N became the ultimate incarnation of the Thunderbolt exhibiting exceptional range and is oft-regarded by many former 'Bolt pilots as the finest of the breed. Reinforced longer spanning wings with additional internal fuel tanks were part of this near-complete redesign of an already impressive mount. Power was generated by an improved form of the M-model's R-2800-57(C) radial of 2,800 horsepower (An R-2800-73 and R-2800-77 were also part of the production mix). Underwing positions held hardpoints for 5-inch HVAR rockets (5 x rockets to a wing). The wings were lengthened a full 18 inches and the wingtips were clipped for improved rolling actions in-flight while her landing gears were completely redesigned. The clipped wings became the definitive identifier in this Thunderbolt variant. Controls for both throttle and turbosupercharger were both refined. Production began in December of 1944 and her long range made her an ideal candidate for actions in the Pacific where land-based airstrips could prove few and far between. The revisions and refinements took their toll on the new Thunderbolt for she sported an empty weight of 11,000lbs and a loaded weight of 20,700lbs! This gave her an increased take-off run. Some 1,816 N-models were delivered and only served in the Pacific Theater of War. Performance for the N-model included a top speed of 467 miles per hour, a ceiling of 43,000 feet, a rate of climb of 3,000 feet per minute and a range of 800 miles.
Same Face, New Name
F-47 became the new P-47 designation in 1948 after the US Air Force was born out of the US Army Air Force as a separate entity (likewise the North American P-51 became the F-51). The F-47 designation lived for a short time in American lore but found homes in the inventories of foreign nations. As such, the F-47 is often a rare designation used when discussing the P-47, at least in American circles.
Some in -field conversions modified a single-seater Thunderbolt into a two-seater fitting a second seating area for a passenger under a long, rearward-sliding canopy. While some used such creations to cavort to other nearby locales for war "goods" such as cigarettes and women, others were used in more constructive ways such as fielding war correspondents over designated areas.
Production Totals by Plant
In all, the Farmingdale, New York plant spit out 9,087 Thunderbolts while the Evansville, Indiana plant produced 6,242 examples. The disappointing Curtiss plant at Buffalo, New York, managed a low 354 production examples.
P-47 In Action Over Europe
The first P-47Cs (colored over in an olive drab and neutral gray paint scheme) arrived in England on December 20th, 1942 and were assembled for the 4th Fighter Group. The 4th Fighter Group at Debden was made up of Americans fighting for the RAF as part of the "Eagle Squadrons" before America had officially committed to World War 2. Once can only imagine the mighty transition for these young lads accustomed to flying the lightweight and sleek Supermarine Spitfires - now faced with the imposing "barrel-with-wings" Thunderbolt.
Thunderbolts were immediately signed up for "Ramrod" missions over Europe, that is, escorting 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated B-24 Liberator heavy bombers that were taking a pounding from Luftwaffe fighters in daring daylight raids. Germany, itself, remained out of the reach for these early Thunderbolts in the theater and it was not yet a reality to have fighters with the range to escort a bomber group all the way to and from their targets. To bomber crews, fighter escorts became known as "Little Friends" for their obvious protective reasons. Luftwaffe pilots simply needed to wait until the fighter escort turned around, low on fuel, to strike at the hapless bomber formations. To "keep up" with the slow-moving bomber groups, P-47 pilots had to perform repeated zig-zag patterns above the bomber groups so as not to stall or get ahead of their flock.
The first P-47 mission took place on March 10th, 1943 and was nothing more than a fighter sweep over enemy territory. Unfortunately for the pilots, serious teething issues quickly arose and forced the Thunderbolts back for repairs. In fact, the issues were severe enough to ground the fleet for a whole month before taking to the skies again. The 56th Fighter Group and the 78th Fighter Group soon came online at their respective bases throughout England - the 78th having yet to even pilot one P-47. Issue after issue continued to mount up for the Thunderbolts and ground crews working feverishly and around-the-clock to correct them.
The Thunderbolts were airborne once more on April 8th, 1943, where a 24-strong (P-47s drawn from the three squadrons) flew an uneventful mission. On April 15th, 1943, the Thunderbolt pilots soon found their first aerial engagement of the war resulting in the downing of two enemy Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighters from the guns of P-47Cs of the 4th Fighter Group.
The P-47s no doubt proved a tough bird to bring down, much to the surprise of the German pilots - some who had emptied dozens of cannon and machine gun rounds into the Thunderbolt airframe only to see it continue on its merry way. Many-a-Thunderbolt pilot returned to England, battered and bruised, but alive to fight another day thanks to these steady mounts. Radial engines inherently maintained a better combat damage resiliency that did the delicate liquid-cooled inline engines. Additionally, the large airframe of the Thunderbolt made it a relative sponge for all types of damage, be it flying shrapnel, flak, power lines or trees at low altitudes. The armor plating around the cockpit perhaps served Jug pilots the most - priceless protection when and where he needed it most.
Diving to Live, Diving to Die
It was no secret the inherent power in a diving Thunderbolt. However, this action could prove two-fold. While acceleration from a rapid drop in altitude was a key tactic used by P-47 pilots, it could also spell their undoing. It was not uncommon for the control surfaces of the 'Bolt to "lock up" in a power dive and potentially prove fatal to the pilot if he could not regain control of the aircraft. One combat incident stated a P-47 beginning a power dive from approximately 28,000 feet with recovery finally occurring at just 5,000 feet! Keep in mind that such dives could also produce forces too great for the average human body and, as a result, a P-47 pilot could black out with nary a chance at regaining control of his aircraft.
"They Drew First Blood..."
On May 4th, the Thunderbolts were called on their first escort mission with Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. Oft-harassed on nearly every sortie, the B-17s were glad to have these stout escorts watching from their perch overhead. Engine teething issues persisted for some of these P-47s but the Luftwaffe was in for a rude awakening as the charging Jugs steamed out of the sky to protect the bomber fleet. The air war over Europe was finally on even terms.
The P-47D models began arriving with their all-important updates. As more and more deliveries of the fine fighter were filled and shipments in England received, the US Army moved to create the 352nd, 353rd, 355th, 356th, 358th, 359th and 361st Fighter Groups.
The P-47 vs Fw 190 - Close Finish
Versus the German Fw 190, Thunderbolt pilots soon discovered some tactics that could best these fine German counterparts. The Fw 190 would almost always win in a turning fight and could gain an early advantage in a dive. Acceleration generally favored the Fw 190 as well while its potent collection of machine guns and hub-firing cannon proved quite lethal. However, P-47 pilots held the advantage in a dive in the long term, able to build up enough speed to outrace or catch up to any Fw 190. Additionally, a single burst from the 8 x .50 caliber machine guns would down a lightly-built Fw 190 with little effort while the P-47 airframe proved masterful at absorbing such damage (even to a ridiculous degree). In the end, an expertly trained P-47 pilot - one knowing the in's and out's of his mount - could eventually best a German Fw 190 through strategy, patience and instinct. This became painfully clear to the Germans as more and more P-47 pilots earned their stay across the many kill boards plastered along the walls of squadron HQs. Becoming an ace in a P-47 was not as uncommon as one might think.
Dive and Zoom Tactics
Despite the advantages, straight-up dogfights for the P-47 were not recommended. Instead, "dive and zoom" tactics sprouted up as the "weapon" of choice. This proposed that the P-47 operate higher than 15,000 feet, an altitude where the turbosupercharger came into play for the 'Bolt and where lesser German fighters tended to see a slight dip in performance. From this altitude, P-47 pilots could then dive onto their targets with relative ease, fire off short-controlled bursts and then retain momentum into an ensuing climb only to repeat the action once again. This helped to keep the heavy P-47 from taking harm directly while making calculated strikes against the enemy.
The Results Are In
Early results put the P-47 favorably ahead of the fabled P-51 Mustangs and Lockheed P-38 Lightnings in the European Theater. The P-47 was called to more sorties than the other two combined and could claim over 200 enemy fighters destroyed in a shorter stretch of time. Comparatively, however, Thunderbolt pilots led the way in losses to enemy aircraft but still maintained a healthy 8:1 victory-to-loss ratio and lost less pilots overall through 1,000 recorded sorties.
Fat is Beautiful
Despite her inherent air-to-ground prowess, the USAAF felt safe in keeping their P-47s in the bomber escort role for the time being. She was, however, eventually unleashed on her first ground attack sortie on November 25th, 1943. The mission entailed the bombing of a Luftwaffe airfield at St Omer. The Thunderbolts enacted their anger onto the airfield, dropping their explosive payloads to good effect, and remained airborne to strafe targets of opportunity while incurring the wrath of deadly-accurate German flak teams. The mission proved a success and the P-47s returned home. The arrival of the North American P-51B Mustangs all but nixed the P-47 from the bomber escort role so she and her pilots would have to get use to these sort of ground attack missions.
The 9th Air Force was officially created to take on the growing number of P-47 groups popping up. The 9th Air Force eventually became a prime operator of the P-47 and initially used them to escort their lighter Douglas A-20 Havocs and Martin B-26 Marauders. The first operational squadron under the 9th banner became the 358th Fighter Group, transferring over from the 8th Air Force. By the end of it all, the Thunderbolt found a combat niche that few fighters could boast. Numbers of the type swelled and, as pilots grew comfortable in these large warplanes, the kill tallies also increased. German fighters spiraled down in flames, locomotives exploded in tremendous fireballs and enemy tank formations fell into disarray. Germany was falling back in retreat and it had no thanks to wield in the direction of the P-47.
Ode to the Tuskegee Airmen, the Help Much Appreciated
While it is always easy and applicable to associate the Tuskegee prowess with the P-51 Mustang, these lads began their combat legacies in P-47 Thunderbolts. The 332nd Fighter Group completed their first mission - defending B-24 Liberators from German Messerschmitt Bf 109s - and claimed and impressive 5 enemy air kills on June 9th, 1944. On June 25th, 1944, this same group spotted and engaged a German destroyer at Trieste Harbor with nothing more than their machine guns. Claiming the sinking of the ship, top Allied brass was skeptical and reviewed the combat gun camera footage only to see the ship explode beyond usefulness through direct evidence. This destruction of a naval vessel by machine gun fire alone was a kill no other P-47 squadron could claim. After only a month of flying their P-47s, the Tuskegee airmen "upgraded" to used P-51B and P-51C models.
End of the Line
Most of the P-47s over Europe were inevitably replaced by the impressive P-51 Mustang when their numbers made it appropriate. Only the 56th Fighter Group was left with Jugs and these boys were handed over the keys to shiny new P-47M "hotrod" models.
P-47 In Action Over the Pacific
As the war in Europe fell under "control" (in favor of the Allies), sheer numbers proved the Thunderbolt a perfect candidate for service in the Pacific Theater. The first P-47s arrived by boat to Australia in June of 1943 and were quickly assembled and flown to Port Moresby, New Guinea. One there, they fell into the hands of the newly arrived 348th Fighter Group as part of the 5th Air Force. Ready for combat, the short range caused by their thirsty R-2800 radials soon came into play, forcing many a crew chief and surrounding crewmembers to fashion homemade paper-based fuel tanks. Operation sorties for P-47 pilots began in July of 1943 and eventually replaced the outclassed Curtiss P-40 Warhawks and Bell P-39 Airacobras operating in the theater (both utilizing liquid-cooled engines mind you).
Once again, the dive and zoom tactics were employed against the well-trained Japanese airmen. Direct dogfights with Japanese fighters was discouraged and the inherent advantages of the P-47 airframe came into play. Despite their ferocious attitudes in flight, Japanese airmen were crippled by the simple fact that their aircraft were not designed to take the full brunt of hot lead from American Jugs (what aircraft realistically was?). As such, American airmen maintained a healthy advantage IF they could maneuver their adversary into their awaiting crosshairs for the kill.
1944 saw P-47 numbers grow to incorporate three squadrons made up of the 35th, 58th and the 348th Fighter Groups. The commander of the 348th was Colonel Neel Kearby who, on October 11th, 1943, netted no fewer than seven enemy aircraft in one mission - though only six were confirmed as his gun camera had run out of film. Kearby became one of America's top aces of the war but was tragically killed in action on March 9th, 1944. Missions in the Pacific proved somewhat different than those in Europe. Much of the terrain was ocean dotted with small island chains. What little land there was, was often covered in thick foliage forcing bases and other facilities to be built near the shorelines. This made for relatively easy target recognition by passing airmen. Additionally, enemy shipping was open for the taking and Thunderbolt pilots were not shy about unleashing bombs or machine gun fire on hapless Japanese vessels.
The Thunderbolt proved the king of the Pacific sky when encountering large Japanese bomber formations (even those accompanied by fighter protection). It was not uncommon for airmen to destroy 90% of bomber formations during outings. As losses mounted for the Japanese, such offensive-minded gestures for the Empire began to curtail - either running out of trained pilots or simply running out of bombers to field. It turned out that the P-47 and arriving P-51 Mustangs and P-38 Lightnings had to eventually "fight" for targets in the Pacific sky, such was the impact of American might in the air war - with special thanks given to the Thunderbolt.
The arrival of the P-47N in the theater soon gave near-complete advantage to the Thunderbolt pilot, many who could (and some did) become aces on one outing - such was the power of the new variant. The "ultimate" Thunderbolt held an inordinate amount of power under her hood while retaining an equally inordinate amount of firepower in her wings. HVAR rockets were part of the P-47 forte as was increased range. Operators of the N-model included the 318th, 413th and 507th Fighter Groups and N-models proved adept at escorting the new long-range Boeing B-29 Superfortresses coming online.
P-47s Versus the Not-So "Divine Wind"
P-47Ns played a pivotal - though not always successful role - in destroying Japanese Kamikaze suicide fighters bent on ramming Allied warships. N-models played upon their powerful engines to throttle at the diving enemy at full speed and engage with bursts from their deadly .50 machine guns. On one such occasion, a P-47N pilot rescued an American warship from a suicide attack by blasting a Japanese fighter to oblivion through a HVAR rocket launched at the aerial target, becoming the first type of kill credited in this fashion.
The final P-47 air kill of World War 2 occurred against a Japanese "Frank" fighter on August 14th, 1945 - this by an airman from the 318th Fighter Group. The 507th produced the last P-47 ace of the war. The dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan ended the war in the Pacific. P-47s of the 414th were showcased in overhead flights over Tokyo Bay during the "Show of Power" at the end of the war.
VJ-Day brought about the cancellation of some 5,934 Thunderbolts still on order for they were no longer needed.
Jugs With the RAF
The Royal Air Force was a prominent operator of the Thunderbolt but limited her use to sorties in the Far East. Some 830 total P-47s made up at least sixteen RAF squadrons and were primarily relegated to ground strike or bomber escort sorties replacing aged mounts. At least two P-47 squadrons soldiered on after the war in India until ultimately replaced by the speedy Hawker Tempest. British Thunderbolts were designated Thunderbolt Mk I (P-47D-20) and Thunderbolt Mk II (P-47D-25) with production encompassing two batches. These American-made Thunderbolts were shipped directly to India for final assembly. When in action, the dive and zoom approach perfected by the Americans proved equally effective for the RAF when combating the relentless Japanese fighters. The first P-47s made their way into frontline British squadrons in May of 1944, replacing batches of outclassed Curtiss Mohawks and Hawker Hurricanes. British use of the fighter encompassed South East Asia Command through Nos 5, 34, 113, 123, 135 and 146 Squadrons made up of Thunderbolt Mk Is. Thunderbolt Mk IIs were fielded by Nos 5, 30, 34, 42, 60, 79, 81, 113, 123, 131, 134, 135, 258, 261 and 615 Squadrons. These Jugs were ultimately replaced by the homegrown Supermarine Spitfire as events in the Far East Theater winded down.
The famous American Air Commando Group in the China-Burma-India Theater also made use of the Thunderbolt, these being D-models. The 1st Air Commandos were tied to the US 10th Air Force and provided air support to the British 14th Army in their Burma Campaign.
The P-47 was maintained by the air forces of Brazil, Chile, China, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Turkey and Yugoslavia among others. The Soviet Union received 195 examples with 8 lost during shipment.
The French Air Force fielded the Thunderbolt in anger against Algerian rebels in 1950 when their new-fangled jet aircraft proved highly unsuitable for such actions at low altitude. While Algeria became an independent nation in 1962, the French Thunderbolts were ridden into the ground through both combat and general wear and tear, never to be used again.
Mexico and Brazil both flew the Jug in combat squadrons under the banner of the USAAF in World War 2. Mexican pilots were a little discouraged in the fact that by the time they got airborne, the Americans had virtually wiped out all Japanese resistance in the skies.
Taiwan received a quantity of P-47Ns and put them to use against Communist China and her MiG-15 jet fighters. Deliveries occurred in 1953 and success was limited. Taiwan inevitably upgraded to jets supplied by their American allies.
Several nations continued to operate their Thunderbolts into the 1960's, some fielded in active combat roles and other not. The Peruvian Air Force retired their Jugs in 1966, twenty-four years after the type's inception into service with the USAAF.
By the close of World War 2, the Thunderbolt accounted for some 546,000 sorties with over 3,752 enemy aircraft destroyed in the European Theater alone. 15,683 Jugs were eventually produced (13,000 in a 45-month stretch alone!), easily becoming Republic's most successful and most identifiable product. Another impressive fact for the P-47 was that two-thirds of all production vehicles were quickly relocated to overseas bases. 5,222 Jugs in total were lost to action while 1,722 of these were non-combat related. The US Air Force claims that the Jug received a combat loss percentage equal to 0.7% against the 1,350,000 hours flown. Quite a testament for any aircraft in any era.
P-47 fighters did not have a much of a role to play in the post-war American military. Many were sent into storage while a few were handed down to National Guard units. Some did serve with the newly-minted US Air Force under the SAC (Strategic Air Command), TAC (Tactical Air Command) and ADC (Aerospace Defense Command). In1948, the P-47 was redesignated to the "F-47" like other pursuit fighters of her time. Jet-powered fighters eventually began to replace F-47's in the USAF inventory by 1949 while National Guard units continued their use of the Thunderbolt into the mid-1950's.
The Jugs Are Rejected from Action in Korea
While her air-to-ground capabilities would have been a godsend in a conflict like the Korean War, the request for F-47s by Lieutenant General Geroge Stratemeyer was denied due to the logistical details that would have to be made in prepping and fielding the F-47 for operations over Korea. Despite their wartime numbers, F-47 spare parts proved hard to come by in the early 1950s. The F-47, therefore, was not to see action in the Korean War.
Regardless, her legacy was firmly entrenched in history's greatest air war and the P-47 proved a mount so capable to any task that she was assigned - whether it was to make an ace out of her pilot or strike at important ground targets - that the "Jug" became an all-star through and through with her capabilities forever held in high regard.
Amazingly, the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt weighed more than a fully-loaded Dornier Do 17 bomber. An important fact to consider when the P-47 was designed from the outset as an interceptor. Her pilots often referred to her amazing agility with great remembrance in spite of her size which makes the weight factor that much more unbelievable. The final operational weight of later production P-47s could easily be measured in TONS let alone pounds.
The Thunderbolt Reincarnated
The Fairchild Republic A-10 "Thunderbolt II" receives her namesake designation from the Republic P-47 lineage. Both generally conduct similar ground strike roles, the A-10 with a bigger gun. While the P-47 garnered the nickname of "Jug", the A-10 takes on the affectionate nickname of "Warthog". To date, no viable replacement has been found for the A-10 Thunderbolt II, despite her advancing age. Likewise, the P-47 was never directly replaced - she was simply forced out by the jet age.
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General Assessment (BETA)
Rating: 100 (of 100)
The rating is an internal assessment derived from forty factors pertaining to this entry.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
This entry's maximum listed speed (433mph).
Graph average of 375 miles-per-hour.
Graph showcases the Republic P-47D Thunderbolt's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
* Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.
** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.