Military Factory logo
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of navy warships

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I (Type KD)

Biplane Fighter Aircraft

Hansa-Brandenburg D.I (Type KD)

Biplane Fighter Aircraft


The Hansa-Brandenburg D.I was produced in limited numbers though it made several aces for Austria-Hungary during her tenure.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: Austria-Hungary
YEAR: 1916
MANUFACTURER(S): Hansa-Brandenburg - Germany / Phonix Flugzeug-Werke AG; Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik AG - Austria
OPERATORS: Austria; Austria-Hungary

Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I (Type KD) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
LENGTH: 20.83 feet (6.35 meters)
WIDTH: 27.92 feet (8.51 meters)
HEIGHT: 9.15 feet (2.79 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 1,477 pounds (670 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 2,022 pounds (917 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Austro-Daimler liquid-cooled 6-cylinder inline engine delivering 160 horsepower.
SPEED (MAX): 116 miles-per-hour (187 kilometers-per-hour; 101 knots)
RANGE: 162 miles (260 kilometers; 140 nautical miles)
CEILING: 16,404 feet (5,000 meters; 3.11 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 1,000 feet-per-minute (305 meters-per-minute)


1 x 8mm Schwarzlose synchronized forward-firing machine gun fitted in a fairing over the upper wing assembly.

Series Model Variants
• D.I (Type KD) - Base Series Production Designation; produced by Hansa-Brandenburg in Germany and Phonix of Vienna; German-produced aircraft yeilded output of 150 horsepower while Vienna-produced aircraft fitted a 185 horsepower engine.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I (Type KD) Biplane Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/1/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
The D.I was another of Ernst Heinkel's aircraft designs for the Hansa-Brandenburg firm (known formally as Hansa und Brandenburgische Flugzeug-Werke) during World War 1. The single-seat aircraft was categorized as a fighter, achieved first flight in 1916 and entered service with Austro-Hungarian pilots in the fall of that year. Though not without some notable (rather poor) handling issues in-flight, the type served in some number through to the end of the conflict and was known to make aces of some of her pilots.

Externally, the D.I was definitely a unique sort of aircraft design even when compared to her contemporaries. The fuselage was a deep though straight-lined and aerodynamic affair. The fuselage made vision out of the cockpit somewhat poor, adding only insult upon injury by the use of a biplane wing arrangement and a large forward engine compartment. The fuselage featured a raised spine extended aft to the empennage which itself sported some interestingly designed tail surfaces - of note was the rather smallish vertical tail fin. The pilot sat just forward of amidships behind and under the upper wing assembly. The equal span wings consisted of an upper and lower wing assembly joined to one another and the fuselage via a complex arrangement of crisscrossing struts that only added to the aircraft's distinct look. The wings were staggered in their placement, with the upper assembly set forward of the lower. The undercarriage was made up of a pair of fixed main landing wheels on struts joined to the underside of the fuselage while a simple tail skid was affixed to the rear underside. The engine powered a two-blade wooden propeller set low in the forward fuselage.

The D.I was meagerly armed with a single 8mm Schwarzlose machine gun fitted to the upper wing assembly within a clumsy-looking fairing. This was brought about through necessity for the complexities involved in synchronizing the Schwarzlose to fire through the propeller proved something of a grand mechanical undertaking. Installation of the weapon in the chosen fairing arrangement proved a drawback as it situated the machine gun far from the pilot's reach should he need to unjam the weapon. Conversely, it allowed for unobstructed firing over any spinning propeller - in a way becoming a simple solution to a complex problem. Several early British mounts took the same design course until the introduction of synchronized firing in the West.

Performance from the single Austro-Daimler 6-cylinder, air-cooled inline engine of 185 horsepower brought about a maximum speed of 116 miles per hour, a service ceiling of up to 16,400 feet and an endurance time of 2.5 hours. Hansa-Brandenburg D.Is produced in Germany were powered by a 150 horsepower Austro-Daimler powerplant (the 185 horsepower D.Is were produced in Vienna). While Hansa-Brandenburg handled production of 50 D.Is, Phonix of Vienna license-produced the type in a further 72 examples.

In practice, the D.I was limited in capability from the start. Handling proved something of a challenge for any level of pilot for the deep fuselage worked against the small vertical tail fin, limiting lateral stability of the airframe and promoting poor spin recovery. These attributes no doubt were a limiting factor for the D.I was produced in a rather lowly sum of 122 examples.

The Hansa-Brandenburg D.I may also be known as the "KD" (abbreviation of "Kampf Doppeldecker") in some publications and carried the nicknames of "Spider" and "Coffin". The former was an indicator of the bracing used for the biplane wings while the latter was taken to be derogatory - a name fitting the treacherous nature of flying the machine. The D.I was further developed into the Benz Bz.III-powered KDW floatplane - also in 1916 - of which some 60 were ultimately produced.


Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (116mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Hansa-Brandenburg D.I (Type KD)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.