Military Factory logo
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of navy warships
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle

PZL P.23 Karas

Reconnaissance / Light Bomber Aircraft

In 1939, Poland could field just under 100 of the outclassed PZL P.23 systems against the German Luftwaffe.
Authored By: Staff Writer | Edited: 5/1/2017
National Flag Graphic


Year: 1936
Manufacturer(s): Panstwowe Zaklady Lotnicze - Poland
Production: 253
Capabilities: Ground Attack; Reconnaissance (RECCE);
Crew: 3
Length: 31.76 ft (9.68 m)
Width: 45.77 ft (13.95 m)
Height: 10.83 ft (3.3 m)
Weight (Empty): 4,365 lb (1,980 kg)
Weight (MTOW): 7,773 lb (3,526 kg)
Power: 1 x PZL Bristol Pegasus IIM2 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine developing 670 horsepower.
Speed: 189 mph (304 kph; 164 kts)
Ceiling: 23,950 feet (7,300 m; 4.54 miles)
Range: 783 miles (1,260 km; 680 nm)
Rate-of-Climb: 1,280 ft/min (390 m/min)
Operators: Bulgaria; Poland; Romania
The PZL P.23 "Karas" (meaning "the crucian carp") series of aircraft was a conventional - yet outdated - monoplane light bomber / reconnaissance platform of Polish design in World War 2. The system was wholly inadequate in speed, firepower and performance against the fighters of the German Luftwaffe and fell in number. Many were lost on the ground while those that did fly in anger, were limited not by their crew's will but moreso in the technological limitations of a by-gone age of military aviation.

Classified as light bomber, the P.23 also undertook reconnaissance sorties as required. Hardly a fighter with very little in the way to defend itself as a light bomber, the aircraft was better reserved to the non-combat reconnaissance role. With Poland clamoring to stem the tide of German invasion, it was a necessity for the P.23 to fight regardless. Armament was purely defensive in nature and numbered three machine guns. A single 7.92mm wz.33 type machine gun was held in a fixed nose position. Two other 7.92mm PWU wz.37 series (or sometimes Vickers F types) were in somewhat trainable gun positioned at rear - on in an underside gun position and the other in a World War 1 style open cockpit dorsal rear gun position. The pilot sat forward on the design with a glazed canopy. The undercarriage was fixed and the overall design was quite traditional in nature. Power from the single engine was derived from a British-designed Polish-produced Bristol Pegasus IIM2 9-cylinder radial piston engine of 670 horsepower (this was uprated to 720 horsepower in the P.23B models which sported the Bristol Pegasus VII).

In service, the P.23 took to the skies in defense of Poland. Though air superiority was far out of the question, the P.23 nonetheless took to the skies to reconnoiter and assess the perilous situation. It was also used to bomb targets in German held territories when possible, though losses most times were horrendous. Despite the limitations of the system, Polish air crews and pilots delivered ordnance and notched a few Luftwaffe kills themselves.

The P.23 was produced in limited numbers - numbering some 253 total examples - and did little to aid the efforts of a falling nation. About 20 or so fled to Romania before the inevitable fall of Poland to fight another day, this time against the might of Soviet aggression from the East.


1 x 7.92mm PWU wz.33 machine gun in fixed nose position
1 x 7.92mm PWU wz.37 / Vickers F in rear dorsal gun position
1 x 7.92mm PWU wz.37 / Vickers F machine gun in rear ventral gun position

Up to 1,543lb of external drop ordnance.

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition

Variants / Models

• P.23/I - Initial Prototype
• P.23/II - Second Prototype
• P.23/III - Third Prototype; improved pilot vision from cockpit by repositioning engine and pilot's seat; became basis of production model line as the PZL.23A.
• P.23A - Initial Production Model; fitted with Bristol Pegasus IIM2 radial piston engine of 670 horsepower (Poland production under license); 40 examples produced.
• PZL.23B - Fitted with Bristol Pegasus VII of 720 horsepower; main production model with 210 examples produced.
• P.42 - Single Example Experimental Model; retractable bombardier gondola fuselage position; double tail fins for improved stability.
Site Disclaimer  |  Privacy Policy  |  Cookies  |  Site Map Site content ©2003-, All Rights Reserved.

The "Military Factory" name and logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT

Part of a network of sites that includes, GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world, and, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft.

Facebook Logo YouTube Logo