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Morane-Saulnier Type N

France (1915)
Picture of Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft
Picture of Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft Picture of Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft
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The Morane-Saulnier Type N was of an advanced aerodynamic design for the time.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 6/6/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The Moraine-Saulnier Type N (or simply "Moraine-Saulnier N") was a French fighter aircraft of the First World War. It appeared in limited production numbers (just 49 total aircraft) and was quickly replaced by more advanced platforms. The aircraft was in itself a great aerodynamic triumph utilizing an air-deflecting spinner at the front of the design and wing-warping (a Wright Brothers patented design technique) instead of moving surface planes more common in other aircraft of the war.

The Type N entered service in 1915. It appeared as an advanced aerodynamic monoplane design with most of the fuselage width dedicated to the Le Rhone 9C rotary piston engine of 110 horsepower. Wings were held well-forward in the design and mounted high. Landing gear were made up of two bicycle type wheels, also held forward. The pilot sat directly aft of the engine placement in an open-air cockpit with a clean look over the nose and under the wings, nothing but a small windshield to deflect oncoming debris. The distinct propeller spinner was the most notable part of the Type N's design as it lent the aircraft a design look well ahead of its time. Unfortunately for posterity's sake, it was soon found that the large metal spinner was actually the cause of engine overheating and was removed from future deliveries. This effectively solved all engine heating issues for the Le Rhone but removed one of the most ingenious parts of the aircraft in the process. Interestingly enough, the removal of the component did little in the way of enhancing or decreasing the aircraft's overall performance specs.

Armament consisted of a single .303 caliber machine gun which could be interchangeably of a Vickers or Hotchkiss design. At this time, synchronized or interrupted firing of machine guns through the propeller blades was generally still being reviewed and developed, forcing the Type N to take make-shift approach developed by Raymond Saulnier himself. The machine gun fired directly into the spinning propeller blades with each blade mounting deflector wedges. The wedges were known to decrease the performance of the spinning blade somewhat but allowed for firing of the machine gun nonetheless.

In essence, the operator could fire his machine gun at leisure though the actual amount of projectiles getting through the spinning blades would seemingly become random and hardly practical in a dogfight - still, the idea fared better than carrying rifles and pistols aloft. Though both sides inevitably released their synchronized firing mechanisms into the war, the Germans would get credited with first use of the concept via their Fokker platform in 1915. Interruptible machine gun systems would see use up until the Korean War, to which the jet age revolutionized every facet of dog fighting from there on.

The Morane-Saulnier Type N was utilized by French Air Forces (as the MS.5C.1) along with the British (referring to it as the "Bullet" for its spinner attachment) and the Imperial Russian Air Service. In practice, the aircraft proved to be a handful to fly and land. The wing-warping approach no doubt added to the operational dangers and it would take a well-trained pilot to fly the machine for any length of time. A high landing speed was reported, adding yet another element of danger for the man at the controls.


Picture of the Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft
Picture of the Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft



Any available statistics for the Morane-Saulnier Type N Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (103mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
Relative Operational Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Morane-Saulnier Type N's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era Impact
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
49
49


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
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Supported Mission Types:
Air-to-Air
Interception
Unmanned
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Training
Anti-Submarine
Anti-Ship
Airborne Early Warning
MEDEVAC
Electronic Warfare
Maritime/Navy
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Search/Rescue
Recon/Scouting
Special Forces
X-Plane/Development
National Flag Graphic
National Origin: France
Service Year: 1915
Classification Type: Single-Seat, Single-Engine Monoplane Fighter Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Morane-Saulnier - France
Production Units: 49
Operational Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Global Operators:
France; Imperial Russia; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Morane-Saulnier Type N model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
21.98 ft


Meters
6.7 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
27.23 ft


Meters
8.3 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
8.20 ft


Meters
2.5 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
635 lb


Kilograms
288 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
979 lb


Kilograms
444 kg

Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Le Rhone 9C rotary piston engine developing 110 horsepower driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
103 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
165 kph


Knots
89 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
140 mi


Kilometers
225 km


Nautical Miles
121 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
13,123 ft


Meters
4,000 m


Miles
2.49 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
820 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
250 m/min

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

STANDARD; FIXED:
1 x 7.7mm OR 8mm Vickers OR Hotchkiss fixed forward-firing machine gun.
Visual Armory:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Morane-Saulnier N (also Morane-Saulnier Type N) - Single-Seat Fighter/Reconnaissance Platform.
• Morane-Saulnier Type Nm - Redesigned tail section; limited production.
• MS.5C.1 - Official French Air Force Designation
• "Bullet" - British Designation