×
Military Pay Military Ranks Aircraft Tanks and Vehicles Small Arms Navy Ships
HOME
AVIATION
MODERN AIR FORCES
COUNTRIES
MANUFACTURERS
COMPARE
BY CONFLICT
BY TYPE
BY DECADE
COLD WAR
INDO-PAK WAR
MODERN AIRCRAFT
SOVIET-AFGHAN WAR
WARSAW PACT

Antonov An-12 (Cub)


Military Transport Aircraft


Aviation / Aerospace

Despite its troubled service life, the Antonov An-12 Cub has found many global customers since its inception during the late-1950s.



Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 3/27/2020 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com
The Antonov An-12 (NATO codename of "Cub") was the primary medium-lift military transport of the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies during the Cold War decades. It operated in similar form and function to the American Lockheed C-130 Hercules which proved exceedingly popular in the West. The An-12 held a direct origin to the An-8, a twin-engine, high-winged light military transport adopted by the Soviet Air Force as well as the civilian passenger airliner concern of Aeroflot. The An-10 was then born of the An-8 to become a four-engined passenger hauler with lengthened fuselage for Aeroflot and, from this, was delivered the military-minded An-12 - retaining the former's four-engine design and high-mounted wings while introducing a rear cargo access ramp akin to the preceding An-8 design.

With more land area to defend than any other superpower of the time, the Soviet military was faced with the daunting prospect of finding ways to mobilize and transport large amounts of men, equipment and weapons to hotspots wherever they may arise. As such, the nation went through an extended period of developing medium and heavy freighters (which continued to this day) to help fill this important logistical role.

The An-12 was designed by Russian Oleg Antonov whose bureau shares his name. First flight of an An-12 prototype was on December 16th, 1957 and powered through 4 x Kuznetsov NK-4 turboprop engines. This same prototype was then severely damaged on a landing approach in 1958, perhaps serving as a symbol of the aircraft's troubled existence still to be realized. Further testing finally cleared the type for military service as the An-12BP and these were outfitted with 4 x Ivchenko AI-20 series turboprop engines. Production of the type spanned from 1957 into 1973 to which 1,248 were produced under various configurations and designations.

The value of such platforms as the An-12 lay in their short runway capabilities and hauling qualities. This was aided, in part, by the high-mounted wings and four engine installations. The high-mounted wing allowed for strong lifting qualities while also clearing the spinning propeller blades from ground personnel moving around the outside of the aircraft. The raised tail unit also allowed unrestricted access to the cargo hold by way of a powered door and loading ramp. With the cockpit set well-forward in the design, the fuselage could largely serve to manage cargo as well as fuel stores and other mission-pertinent components. While traditionally unarmed, some Zn-12 variants featured a 2 x 23mm NR-23 cannon installation at the tail to counter perusing aircraft - a common practice seen in many large aircraft of the Cold War period. A typical crew numbered five personnel to include a pair of pilots, a flight engineer, a navigator and a radioman.


The aircraft was powered by 4 x Ivchenko (now Progress) AI-20L turboprop engines of 4,000 horsepower output each. This allowed the airframe a maximum speed of 480 miles per hour with a cruising speed of 415 miles per hour. Range with a complete fuel load was 3,540 miles. Service ceiling was listed at 33,500 feet with a rate-of-climb (depending on load) of 1,960 feet per minute.

The "Cub" would go on to fill a myriad of other roles in both wartime and peacetime, chief among these becoming an Airborne Early Warning (AEW) station, an aerial refueling tanker and primary crew trainer. India received some forty units and converted some as bombers during the Indo-Pak War. Similarly, Sri Lanka modified a pair of transports as ad hoc bombers in ongoing battles with Tamil Tiger rebels. After the Soviet-Chinese split of the 1960s and having acquired kits for license production of the An-12, China built the aircraft locally before reverse-engineering the line and reintroducing it as the Shannxi Y-8. The Y-8 line was equally broadened into a myriad of available variants including a dedicated maritime reconnaissance variant. Soviet examples of the Cold War were exported solely to allied nations.

The An-12 is still in active use today (2013) but it's terrible accident record had precluded its use across some airspaces of the world. The series has seen nearly 200 recorded accidents during its service lifetime. In fact, an An-12 has recently been linked to a December 2013 crash in Russia, killing five of its crew memebers.

The Antonov An-12 "Cub" series was eventually formally replaced in Soviet/Russian service (among others) by the larger, jet-powered Ilyushin IL-76 "Candid" line which, itself, continues in service today (2013).


Specifications



Year:
1959
Status
Active, In-Service
Crew
5
[ 1,248 Units ] :
Antonov - Soviet Union
National flag of Algeria National flag of Angola National flag of Armenia National flag of Azerbaijan National flag of Bangladesh National flag of Belarus National flag of Bulgaria National flag of Canada National flag of China National flag of Czech Republic National flag of Czechoslovakia National flag of Egypt National flag of Ethiopia National flag of France National flag of Georgia National flag of Ghana National flag of India National flag of Indonesia National flag of Iran National flag of Iraq National flag of Ivory Coast National flag of Jordan National flag of Kazakhstan National flag of Mexico National flag of Mongolia National flag of Mozambique National flag of Nigeria National flag of Philippines National flag of Poland National flag of Russia National flag of Slovakia National flag of Soviet Union National flag of Sri Lanka National flag of Sudan National flag of Syria National flag of Tanzania National flag of Turkmenistan National flag of Ukraine National flag of United Arab Emirates National flag of United States National flag of Uzbekistan National flag of Yemen National flag of Yugoslavia National flag of Zimbabwe Afganistan; Algeria; Angola; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Bulgaria; Burma; Canada; China; Czechoslovakia; Czech Republic; Egypt; Ethiopia; France; Georgia; Guinea; Ghana; India; Indonesia; Iraq; Iran; Ivory Coast; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgstan; Mongolia; Mozambique; Mexico; Nigeria; Philippines; Poland; Russia; Slovakia; South Yemen; Soviet Union; Sudan; Sri Lanka; Syria; Tanzania; Turkmenistan; United Arab Emirates; Ukraine; United States; Uzbekistan; Yemen; Yugoslavia; Zimbabwe
- Transport
Length:
108.60 ft (33.1 m)
Width:
124.67 ft (38 m)
Height:
34.55 ft (10.53 m)
(Showcased structural dimension values pertain to the Antonov An-12BK (Cub) production model)
Empty Weight:
61,729 lb (28,000 kg)
MTOW:
134,482 lb (61,000 kg)
(Diff: +72,753lb)
(Showcased weight values pertain to the Antonov An-12BK (Cub) production model)
4 x ZMDB Progress (Ivchenko) AI-20M turboprop engines generating 4,252 shaft horsepower each.
(Showcased powerplant information pertains to the Antonov An-12BK (Cub) production model)
Max Speed:
300 mph (482 kph; 260 kts)
Service Ceiling:
34,449 feet (10,500 m; 6.52 miles)
Max Range:
2,237 miles (3,600 km; 1,944 nm)
Rate-of-Climb:
1,960 ft/min (597 m/min)
(Showcased performance values pertain to the Antonov An-12BK (Cub) production model; Compare this aircraft entry against any other in our database)
Usually none though some variants may be armed with tail-mounted 2 x 23mm Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 series cannons.
(Showcased armament details pertain to the Antonov An-12BK (Cub) production model)
An-12 - Base initial production model; fitted with Ivchenko AI-20A engines of 4,000 horsepower
An-12A - Improved An-12; additional fuel cells; fitted with Ivchenko AI-20K engines of 4,250 horsepower.
An-12AD - Single example An-12 from Tashkent
An-12AP - An-12A with additional two fuel tanks
An-12B - Improved An-12; additional fuel stores; strengthened wing center; detachable wing elements; improved cargo handling; outfitted with improved Ivchenko AI-20M engines of 4,250 horsepower.
An-12B (LIAT) - Crash investigation platform modified from An-12B; single example
An-12B-30 - Proposed An-12 with AI-20K engines of 5,180 horsepower; increased cargo load capability.
An-12B-I - Electronic CounterMeasures (ECM) platform; seven examples
An-12BK - Improved avionics suite; increased cargo capacity; enlarged cargo door
An-12BK-IS - An-12BK models modified for ECM duty; 40 examples
An-12BK-PPS - An-12PP serving as ECM aircraft
An-12BKK - One-off VIP conversion with pressurized passenger cabin
An-12BKSh - Navigation Trainer based on An-12BK
An-12BKT - Aerial tanker version
An-12BKV - Proposed bomber/naval mine dispenser platform
An-12BL - Kh-28 aerial missile testbed
An-12BM - An-12B modified to serve in SATCOM role; single example
An-12BP - Additional fuel stores
An-12BPTs - An-12BP airframes modified for atmospheric research role; two examples
An-12BSh - Navigational trainer platform
An-12BSM - Improved commercial cargo hauler
An-12BZ-1 - Proposed aerial tanker
An-12BZ-2 - Proposed aerial tanker
An-12D - Proposed improved An-12; revised undercarriage; increased cargo hauling capabilities; new empennage.
An-12DK - Proposed variant outfitted with Ivchenko AI-30 engines of 5,500 horsepower
As-12D-UPS - Aerodynamic testbed laboratory
An-12M - Proposed modified An-12 with AI-20DM engines of 5,180 horsepower
An-12P - Additional two fuel tanks added
An-12PL -Arctic/cold weather environment conversion model; ski-type undercarriage arrangement
An-12PP - ECM variant
An-12PS - An-12B with Search and Rescue functionality
An-12R - Dedicated reconnaissance platform
An-12RR - Radiation reconnaissance platform
An-12RU - Proposed JATO (Jet-Assisted Take-Off) variant
An-12SN - Special mission airframe; improved cargo hauling capabilities for the transport of main battle tanks and similar; 1 x Mikulin RD-9 turbojet for added lift.
An-12T - Aerial tanker variant
An-12TP-2 - Long-range geographical survey platform; single example from An-12B line
An-12TA
An-12TB
An-12TBP
An-12TBK
An-12U - Aerodynamic airborne testbed
An-12UD - Extended range form
An-12UD-3 - Increased range variant
An-12VKP - Airborne Command Post; single example from An-12A line
An-40 - Based on An-12D model; outfitted with AI-30 engines of 5,500 horsepower; never adopted.
An-40PLO - Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) variant
An-42 - An-40 for aerodynamic airborne testing
Shaanxi Y-8 - Chinese local copy of the An-12BP model; various other variants developed since.
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Cookies
Military Ranks | Military Pay | Aircraft | Tanks & Vehicles | Small Arms | Navy Ships | American War Deaths | 5-Star Generals | Military Alphabet Code | DoD Terms | Convert Knots to Miles-per-Hour



The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world and WDMMA.org, the World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft.


Facebook Logo YouTube Logo

www.MilitaryFactory.com • All Rights Reserved • Content ©2003-