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Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender

United States (1943)
Picture of Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype
Picture of Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype Picture of Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype

The Curtiss XP-55 Ascender fighter project was a novel attempt at a pusher-prop aircraft design, though hampered by less-then-stellar performance.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype.  Entry last updated on 5/21/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The XP-55 Ascender was an unorthodox attempt by the Curtiss-Wright company that produced just three prototype models. Answering a United States Army Air Corps call for unconventional aircraft designs, the XP-55 fit the bill with its pusher engine mounted at rear, swept-back wings and forward canard mountings. Less-then-stellar flight testing results and mechanical delays with the expected powerplant would eventually doom the project and leave two surviving prototypes (one would later be lost at an air show).

The XP-55 was a single-seat single-engine design. The pusher-type engine was mounted to the extreme rear and differed from traditional pull designs with the engine mounted at front. This left the pilot with a commanding forward view. Wings were highly swept which was another departure from the straight wing designs that continued on in jet fighter developments well into the Korean War. First drawings and scale models were completed and assessed as early as 1940 to which the Army Air Corps needed more convincing. As a result, Curtiss took it upon itself to produce a flyable full scale model - this one to be designated in-house as the CW-24B. The test aircraft differed some from the final three prototypes developed from the granted contract of 1942. The test bed flew with a Menasco C68-5 powerplant, whereas the final prototype models were fitted each with the Allison V-1710 engine. Initially, the XP-55 was to utilize an entirely new engine design in the form of a Pratt & Whitney design known as the X-1800. But developmental issues with the powerplant forced Curtiss to use an existing - yet proven - model instead.

Armament for the XP-55 was originally drawn up to include a pair of 20mm cannon to go along with twin 12.7mm (.50 caliber) machine guns. This arrangement was revisited and revised to a quad .50 caliber array during the testing phase and this standard armament stayed with the life of the program. The design offered up benefits in this way in that the armament could be fully fitted into the nose assembly, seeing it that the engine was now mounted behind the cockpit seating area, opening up the nose to more spacious armament. Firepower could also be more concentrated in this fashion as opposed to a combination of wing and nose-mounted armament.

The XP-55 would go on to feature a host of interesting design elements. For Curtiss, it would become its first design to feature a powered tricycle landing gear assembly (though fixed on the initial test models). The absence of a true rudder resulted in smaller vertical surfaces mounted far off onto the wings. The use of forward canards was also revolutionary as was the ejection system - the propeller had to be jettisoned before the pilot could eject himself, ensuring the pilot would not eject and hit the spinning propeller system at rear by accident. It should be noted that designs similar to this were also being trialed by the Japanese (in the J7W1 Shinden) and Germans (in the Henschel P.75) during the Second World War and was by no means unique to American aircraft design efforts.

The final verdict on the XP-55 rang in hard when it was realized that the system could not match the performance available to contemporary and traditionally-designed fighters. Additionally, the latter years of the Second World War were already bringing about the advent of jet-propulsion effectively negating any more development or advances in propeller systems research. As such, the series was limited in production totals and became the stuff for aviation aficionados and museum buffs.


Picture of the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype
Picture of the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype



Any available statistics for the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (390mph).

    Graph average of 300 miles-per-hour.
Aviation Era
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Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
3
3


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


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Origin: United States
Year: 1943
Type: Single-Seat, Single-Engine Pursuit Fighter Prototype
Manufacturer(s): Curtiss-Wright - USA
Production: 3
Status: Cancelled
Global Operators:
United States (cancelled)
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
29.53 ft


Meters
9 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
40.68 ft


Meters
12.4 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
9.84 ft


Meters
3 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
6,354 lb


Kilograms
2,882 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
7,716 lb


Kilograms
3,500 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Allison V-1710-95 liquid-cooled V12 engine developing 1,275 horsepower driving a three-bladed propeller unit in pusher arrangement.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
390 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
628 kph


Knots
339 kts


Performance
CEILING


Feet
34,449 ft


Meters
10,500 m


Miles
6.52 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
2,350 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
716 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft heavy machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Armament - Hardpoints (0):

PROPOSED:
2 x 20mm automatic cannons in nose.
2 x 0.50 caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns in nose.

ACTUAL:
4 x 0.50 caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns in nose.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• XP-55 - Reserved Model Series Designation; produced in three prototype examples in the s/n 42-78845, s/n 42-78846 and the s/n 42-78847.
• CW-24B - Designation as applied to by the Curtiss company to a full working model of the XP-55.
• P-55 - Reserved Production Model Designation