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Hawker Typhoon

Ground Attack Aircraft / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

Hawker Typhoon

Ground Attack Aircraft / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



Despite being designed as a high-altitude interceptor, the Hawker Typhoon proved to be an excellent low-altitude performer for its part in World War 2.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United Kingdom
YEAR: 1941
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Hawker Aircraft / Gloster - UK
PRODUCTION: 3,317
OPERATORS: Australia; Belgium; Canada; New Zealand; United Kingdom
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Hawker Typhoon model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 31.92 feet (9.73 meters)
WIDTH: 41.57 feet (12.67 meters)
HEIGHT: 15.32 feet (4.67 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 8,801 pounds (3,992 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 13,250 pounds (6,010 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Napier Sabre II-A 24-cylinder sleeve-valve liquid-cooled piston engine developing 2,180 horsepower.
SPEED (MAX): 413 miles-per-hour (664 kilometers-per-hour; 359 knots)
RANGE: 510 miles (821 kilometers; 443 nautical miles)
CEILING: 35,203 feet (10,730 meters; 6.67 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 3,000 feet-per-minute (914 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



INITIAL:
12 x 7.7mm Browning machine guns.

STANDARDIZED:
4 x 20mm Hispano cannons (two guns to a wing).

OPTIONAL:
2 x 250lb or 500lb bombs underwing.
8 x HE (High-Explosive) aerial rockets underwing.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• Tornado - Prototype Model Designation
• Typhoon F.Mk IA - Fitted with 7.7mm Browning machine guns.
• Typhoon F.Mk IB - Fitted with 20mm Hispano cannons.
• Typhoon FR.Mk IB - Tactical Reconnaissance Model
• "Typhoon II" - Largely improved Typhoon model based on the Mk I; renamed Hawker Tempest and received as an "all-new" design.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Hawker Typhoon Ground Attack Aircraft / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 6/6/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Hawker Typhoon (affectionate known as the "Tiffie") was initially intended as a dedicated interceptor and set to succeed the 1930's-era Hawker Hurricane and was first drawn up in 1937. The system was designed to a British Air Ministry specification (Specification F.18/37) calling for such an aircraft to accept the new line of Rolls-Royce and Napier 2,000 horsepower engines. The Typhoon was predicted to do just that thanks to the promising Napier 24-cylinder, liquid-cooled 2,000-plus horsepower Sabre engine selected for the airframe. At least on paper, the Typhoon would have given even the fabled Supermarine Spitfire and its legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine a run for its money but history would prove otherwise and set the Typhoon on a different course altogether.

Development
As promising as the all-new aircraft was, initial development revealed several key issues with the design, especially of the fuselage construction and the new Sabre engine. First flight was achieved in February of 1940. On May 9th, 1940, a prototype Typhoon recorded a devastating failure of the fuselage at the base of the empennage, just aft of the cockpit, while the Sabre engine suffered many-a-teething problem. The situation became quite complicated to the point that the future of the Typhoon was in jeopardy and the Air Ministry was looking to cancel the project altogether in favor of purchasing American-made Republic P-47 Thunderbolts instead. Only the arrival of the Focke-Wulf 190 "Wurger" series fighter in September of 1941 helped to fuel the Typhoon project as a viable contender to the elusive high-performing German fighter.

Design
Visually, the Typhoon offered a menacing pose. The large under-fuselage chin radiator installation was its most notable identifying physical feature. The scoop sat directly below and behind the propeller spinner and integrated into the lower portion of the fuselage. The pilots cockpit was situated near the middle of the design, above and aft of the wing trailing edge. The fuselage itself was almost tubular in shape and ended in a traditional empennage with a rounded vertical fin. Wings were of a low-monoplane cantilever design and rounded. The undercarriage was traditional with retractable main landing gears and a retractable tail wheel. Construction was mostly of all metal stressed skin.

Armament
In its initial form, the Typhoon was to be armed with no fewer than 12 x 7.7mm machine guns (.303 caliber). Though sounding impressive, heavier caliber weapons such as 12.7mm (.50 caliber) heavy machine guns and cannons were becoming the norm on aircraft throughout the war. As such, the Typhoon had its principle weapons suite upgraded to a more formidable array of 4 x 20mm cannon. two to a wing, and identified by the cannon barrel fairings extending from the leading wing edges. The final production Typhoon could further augment this armament through the addition of high-explosive rockets or traditional drop bombs as needed (the latter on two underwing hardpoints).

Cockpit
The cockpit of the Hawker Typhoon required a rather steep climb up. Whereas later versions of the aircraft featured the more traditional sliding bubble canopy, early models were fitted with an automobile-style hinged door ala the Bell Airacobra. These early cockpit designs were also noted for their poor visibility. Though the automobile-style doors made for a more familiar method of entry into the Typhoon cockpit it likewise presented the pilot with an unusual mode of exit should he be faced with the prospect of bailing out of the aircraft. As with some other models of World War Two aircraft, the Hawker Typhoon's cockpit was also susceptible to maintaining high and dangerous levels of carbon monoxide for the pilot to the point that the pilot was practically required to wear his oxygen mask from the moment he started his engine prior to take-off to the moment he had safely landed and powered his engine down. Cockpit noise was also noted as high by former pilots.




Hawker Typhoon (Cont'd)

Ground Attack Aircraft / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft

Hawker Typhoon (Cont'd)

Ground Attack Aircraft / Fighter-Bomber Aircraft



Instrumentation was traditional for British aircraft, being of the standardized "flying blind" layout and was regarded as a most convenient arrangement (A standardized cockpit made for a friendlier transition for pilots from trainer to operational aircraft as layouts were relatively identical in most British aircraft to the point that the operator could in fact fly any RAF aircraft without aid from the instruments). The pilot had access to a traditional control column with a circular spade-style grip. The grip offered easy access to the firing button for the 4 x 20mm cannon and a brake control. The throttle handle was set off to the left side of the cockpit and featured conveniently-placed bomb/rocket, flap and undercarriage controls.

Operational Service
Once fielded in August of 1941, the Typhoon met with mixed results. It became the RAF's first 400 mile-per-hour fighter on one hand but on the other, the Napier engine - despite its power - proved quite complex and needed much attention while still being prone to failures in the field. Such was the desire to "make it happen" that the powerplant was debuted before it should have been made officially ready on any platform. The price paid for pure speed was off-set by the aircrafts generally poor rate-of-climb. Additionally, despite being designed as a high-altitude performance interceptor, the Typhoon performed quite poorly at height above medium altitude and surprisingly proved its worth in low to mid-altitude sorties instead. In this way, the Typhoon actually fared better in the role than the Supermarine Spitfire.

As a result, Typhoons became more and more relegated to this role and armed for more conventional ground strike capabilities than intended. The Typhoon could engage ground targets and still offer up competing performance when tangling with German bombers and fighters at this level. More importantly, the marauding Fw-190 low-level attacks across the southern British coast were finally answered with the arrival of the Typhoon as the fighter-bomber proved adept at engaging these small German aircraft on their own terms at their optimal operating altitude. The structural deficiency in the tail design also led to delays and some unfortunate fatalities though this was later addressed temporarily through the use of reinforcement via twenty alloy riveted "fishplates" at the empennage base.

By 1943, the Typhoon was being fitted with air-to-ground rockets and 2 x 250lb bombs underwing. This, coupled with its low-altitude performance, made for an exceptional fighter-bomber hybrid. Typhoons played a large role in disrupting German communications prior to the D-Day landings in both day and night sorties. As the Allied foothold into France increased, so too did the level of Typhoon usage in terms of helping to form new frontlines for the advancing ground forces - Typhoons began operating from French-based airfields and, more importantly, Holland, giving them access to targets on German soil. Typhoons followed the ground fighting through to the end of the war in this role, taking on escort fighter support from Spitfires and Mustangs when needed. Their shellacking of German support elements proved pivotal in the strategic pushes that would ultimately lead to the Allied victory. No German target proved safe from the cannons, bombs and rockets of the Typhoon - be it ammunition stores, vehicles, train yards or ground forces themselves. By the end of the war, some 3,300 Typhoons were produced. Despite these numbers, they became all but extinct with the arrival of the jet age in the post-war world. Typhoons were removed from service as soon as 1946. At the height of its use, the Typhoon made up 26 total squadrons - pretty impressive considering the design was almost laid to rest during its development.

Conclusion
Aircraft such as the Typhoon are wonders in wartime. Their initial designs are often rigged for failure from the outset only to have the ever-changing face of warfare force a new role-player to be added to the ranks. Such was the case with the Hawker Typhoon that, in all respects, it was actually a successful aircraft despite the design's drawbacks and limitations. The RAF had taken notice of the platforms capabilities and fielded it accordingly. By the time the Germans took note, it was all but too late for the Reich.




MEDIA







General Assessment (BETA)
Firepower  
Performance  
Survivability  
Versatility  
Impact  


Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
MF Power Rating (BETA)
40
The MF Power Rating takes into account over sixty individual factors related to this aircraft entry. The rating is out of 100 total possible points.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 500mph
Lo: 250mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (413mph).

    Graph average of 375 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Hawker Typhoon IB's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
3317
3317

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of aircraft aerial rockets
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.