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Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter

United States (1944)
Picture of Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter Transport Aircraft

The C-97 Stratofreighter was a critical product for both Boeing and the US military throughout the 1950s and 1960s.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter Transport Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 6/18/2017. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

A post-World War 2 design, the C-97 was developed by The Boeing Company from its Model 367 product - a military-minded transport airframe originating from the successful Boeing B-29/B-50 Superfortress heavy bomber design. As such, many of the design elements found on the B-29/B-50 are apparent in the C-97 including the wings and tail sections. The C-97 saw service during the Berlin Airlift (1949) and in the Korea War (1950-1953), for the latter primarily utilized to shuttle casualties, sometimes at tree-top altitudes to avoid enemy eyes. Others were eventually stationed as air command posts and in-flight refueling tankers for Strategic Air Command (SAC). 60 x C-97's were built over the span of a decade. First flight was on November 9th , 1944 as one of three XC-97 prototypes while the final C-97 was retired from service in 1978. The C-97 gave good service during its time aloft, totaling 888 examples when including all of its available variants beyond the standard C-97. The 377 Stratocruiser was the civilian passenger transport of the C-97. 56 of these aircraft were completed and operated by Pan Am, BOAC and Northwest. The Aero Spacelines "Pregnant Guppy", "Super Guppy" and "Mini Guppy" are all based on the Model 367/C-97.

Externally, the C-97 was designed as a mammoth aircraft with a lengthy wingspan mounting four engines, a deep-volume ("double-lobed") fuselage and a traditional empennage. The flight deck was situated in an elevated position at the extreme front of the aircraft. The deep fuselage allowed for various internal arrangements to be had. Each wing managed two engine nacelles along their leading edge. Power was served through 4 x Pratt & Whitney R-4360B Wasp Major radial piston engines delivering 3,500 horsepower each while powering four-bladed propellers. The aircraft could reach a top speed of 375 miles per hour and cruise at 300 miles per hour up to a ceiling of 35,000 feet and range out to 4,300 miles. Internally, the pressurized cargo hold could house 96 infantry or 69 medical patients with staff. In the air tanker role, the C-97 was instead outfitted with large fuel stores which fed awaiting aircraft via a single directional boom at the base of the tail. The cargo hold was accessed through clamshell doors along the belly of the fuselage. The undercarriage was fully retractable and consisted of a double-wheeled nose leg and twin-wheeled main legs. A radar was housed in a chin radome which immediately differentiated the design from the similar 377 Stratocruiser series. The standard operating crew (in basic C-97 transport configuration) was two pilots, a navigator and a flight engineer.
The C-97 was undoubtedly a large aircraft. Its wingspan measured over 141 feet and the fuselage was over 110 feet long. Height was listed at over 38 feet. When empty, the C-97 displaced at 82,500lbs and this ballooned to 175,000lbs when under full load.

Cargo evaluation versions existed under the YC-97 designation and six were produced. The YV-97A was an evaluation troop transport of which three were manufactured and the YV-97B was an evaluation type featuring passenger seating for 80 though only one example was converted as such. The initial production model was the C-97A of which 50 were delivered. Three were converted to the air tanker role as the KC-97A and then returned to C-97A standard after testing. The C-97C was a MEDEVAC variant built from 14 C-97A models during the Korean War. The C-97E was a transport as was the C-97F. Both of these were born from the KC-97E and KC-97F air tankers (60 and 159 built respectively). The KC-97G was another air tanker in 592 examples then converted into 135 KC-97G transport. 81 KC-97Gs were converted as troop transports under the C-97K designation. The C-97 existed in many other specialized forms including training, search and rescue (SAR), turbojet testbed and ELINT.

Operators of the C-97 (beyond the United States) went on to include Israel and Spain. Ex-USAF airframes found their way to the Air National Guard as transports while others found their way into private hands. Some has survived as restored/protected museum pieces.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (375mph).

    Graph average of 300 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
60
60


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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National Flag Graphic
Origin: United States
Year: 1944
Type: Transport Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Boeing Corporation - USA
Production: 60
Global Operators:
Israel; Spain; United States
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
4


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
110.56 ft


Meters
33.7 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
141.40 ft


Meters
43.1 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
38.39 ft


Meters
11.7 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
82,453 lb


Kilograms
37,400 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
176,370 lb


Kilograms
80,000 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
4 x Pratt & Whitney R-4360B "Wasp Major" radial piston engines developing 3,500 horsepower each.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
375 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
603 kph


Knots
326 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
4,350 mi


Kilometers
7,000 km


Nautical Miles
3,780 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
35,007 ft


Meters
10,670 m


Miles
6.63 mi

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

None.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Model 367 - Boeing Product Designation
• XC-97 - Prototype Model based on Model 367; three examples completed.
• YC-97 - Evaluation cargo transports; six examples.
• YC-97A - Evaluation troop transport; three examples.
• YC-97B - Evaluation passenger transport; seating for 80.
• C-97A - Initial Transport Model; 50 examples
• KC-97A - Aerial Tanker; three converted from C-97A stocks for testing, then returned to C-97A standard.
• C-97C - MEDEVAC variant; 14 x C-97A conversions
• VC-97D - VIP transport; 4 conversions - 1 x YC-97A, 2 x C-97A and 1 x YC-97B.
• C-97E - Transports converted from KC-97E
• KC-97E - Aerial tanker; 60 examples
• C-97F - Transports converted from KC-97F
• KC-97F - Aerial tanker; fitted with P&W R-4360-59B engines of 3,800 horsepower.
• C-97G - Transports converted from KC-97G; 135 examples.
• EC-97G - ElINT model; converted from three KC-97G
• KC-97G - Hybrid aerial tanker/transport model; 592 examples.
• GKC-97G - Training model; five examples from KC-97G.
• JKC-97G - Turbojet engine testbed; single example; later becoming KC-97L.
• HC-97G - Search and Rescue platform; 22 examples.
• KC-97H - Experimental aerial tanker; converted from KC-97F; single example.
• YC-97J - Proposed aerial tanker; two examples converted from KC-97G.
• C-97K - Troop transport; from KC-97G
• KC-97L - KC-97G models with 2 x J47 turbojet engines underwing; 81 examples.