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Avro Type D

Experimental Biplane / Floatplane Aircraft

Avro Type D

Experimental Biplane / Floatplane Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
IMAGES
Overview



The Avro Type D became the first biplane aircraft to be designed by Alliott Verdon Roe and flew for the first time in April of 1911.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United Kingdom
YEAR: 1911
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Avro (A.V.Roe) - UK
PRODUCTION: 7
OPERATORS: United Kingdom
National flag of United Kingdom
UK
Technical Specifications



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Avro Type D model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
POWER: 1 x Green C.4 4-cylinder inline piston engine developing 35 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
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LENGTH

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HEIGHT

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SPEED (MAX)

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Armament



None.
Variants / Models



• Type D - Base Series Designation; seven examples completed.


History



Detailing the development and operational history of the Avro Type D Experimental Biplane / Floatplane Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 4/12/2019. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The barriers of flight required much experimentation in the early years and it fell to forward-thinking individuals like Alliott Verdon Roe (1877-1958) of Britain to push the field along. The Avro "Type D" was a product of the pre-World War 1 period and involved seven aircraft built to an experimental standard, utilizing a biplane wing configuration and single engine mounting. A first-flight was recorded on April 1st, 1911 (with one C.H. Pixton at the controls) and the series went on to see airworthy service into 1913.

As built, the Type D seated a sole pilot and could carry a single passenger in open-air cockpits. Structurally, the aircraft has an overall length of 28 feet, a wingspan of 31 feet, and a height of 9.1 feet. Gross weight reached 500lb. Power was derived from a single Green C.4 4-cylinder inline piston engine outputting 35 horsepower and used to drive a two-bladed propeller at the nose. Maximum achievable speeds reached near 50 miles-per-hour.

The aircraft's configuration had the three-bayed biplane wing members seated well-forward of midships and, with the engine at the nose, concentrated the aircraft's weight forward. The crew seating was aft of the engine. The wing mainplanes were joined to one another by way of parallel struts and cabling was used for strengthening as well as to control surfaces in-flight. The tail encompassed a skeletal stem-like member emanating from the rear of the cockpit area and terminating in a single-finned unit with horizontal planes. The undercarriage was typical of the time - multi-wheeled (multi-spoked bicycle-style tires), fixed, and joined to landing skids.

The arrival of the Type D marked A.V. Roe's first venture into a biplane-winged flying machine - previous attempts centering on triplanes and other multi-winged developments.

The aircraft's first-flight in April of 1911 revealed a relatively controllable, responsive aircraft - proving the design sound. Following additional successful flights, the design was sold off to Commander Oliver Schwann who commanded the airship "Hermione".

At this point in the Type D's flying career, she was reworked as a floatplane to which Commander Schwann revised the design by adding a skin to the rear fuselage area and working in a slightly modified tail unit. Instead of the typical wheel/skid undercarriage, twin floats of various types were trialed and, on November 18th, 1911, the Type D took off in its new guise - marking the first time a floatplane went airborne from British waters. The following year, the aircraft fell under ownership of the Royal Aircraft Factory and, following modifications of their own, flew under the designation of H.R.E.3. In 1913, it was reconfigured, yet again, to become a land-based flyer. This marked the last known actions involving the Type D design as Europe moved on to become embroiled in The Great War (1914-1918) - which furthered the cause of aviation considerably heading into the 1920s.

Of the seven Type D's constructed, one model was modified as a racer with a 2-foot extension of the fuselage, reduced-span lower wing members, and reworked radiator system. Additionally, the original Green engine was succeeded by an ENF Type F model outputting a greater 60 horsepower while still turning a two-bladed wooden propeller unit at the nose. The changes made for a fast-yet-heavy aircraft which crashed during a trial run from an altitude of 150 feet or so - the pilot being uninjured in the action.




Media







Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 50mph
Lo: 25mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (48mph).

Graph average of 37.5 miles-per-hour.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (7)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
7
7

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.


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