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Hannover CL.II

Patrol and Pursuit Biplane Fighter

Hannover CL.II

Patrol and Pursuit Biplane Fighter


Over 400 examples of the German Hannover CL.II defensive patrol and pursuit biplane fighters were built during its service life.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: Imperial Germany
YEAR: 1917
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Hannoversche Waggonfabrik / Luft-Fahrzeug-Gesellschaft (LFG) - German Empire
OPERATORS: Imperial Germany; Poland (post-war)

Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Hannover CL.II model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
LENGTH: 25.59 feet (7.8 meters)
WIDTH: 39.21 feet (11.95 meters)
HEIGHT: 9.02 feet (2.75 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 1,653 pounds (750 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 2,447 pounds (1,110 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Argus As.III water-cooled inline piston engine developing 180 horsepower and driving a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose.
SPEED (MAX): 103 miles-per-hour (165 kilometers-per-hour; 89 knots)
RANGE: 357 miles (575 kilometers; 310 nautical miles)
CEILING: 24,606 feet (7,500 meters; 4.66 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 620 feet-per-minute (189 meters-per-minute)

1 x 7.92mm Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun in fixed, forward-firing mounting.
1 x 7.92mm MG14 Parabellum machine gun on trainable mounting in rear cockpit.
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun

Series Model Variants
• CL.II - Base Series Designation.
• CL.IIa - License production by LFG.
• CL.II(ROL) - Advanced trainer form; production by Roland; 200 examples completed.
• SK-1 "Slowik" - Polish unlicensed copy of CL.II by CWL.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Hannover CL.II Patrol and Pursuit Biplane Fighter.  Entry last updated on 1/25/2019. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
With World War 1 having raged across the globe for years since the summer of 1914, German authorities looked to gain the advantage in the air through a new lightweight, agile, twin-seat patrol-pursuit-minded biplane fighter type. The requirement was fleshed out during the fall of 1916 and several German manufacturers responded. Among them became Hannoversche Waggonfabrik AG (Hannover) who, up until the war, was primarily focused on products for the railway industry. As with other new players to the aero-industry, Hannover began operations by building other company's aeroplanes under license before developing their own portfolio during the latter war years.

Hannover was one of the players given a development contract to cover three flyable prototypes to meet the requirement of the German Air Force. A design by Hermann Dorner was pushed through which incorporated an unequal-span biplane wing arrangement featuring single bays and parallel struts, tandem-seating for its crew of two, and the engine set in its usual place at the nose. One key physical feature of this aircraft was its use of a biplane wing arrangement at the tail section which, with a smaller-area vertical tail fin and elevated gunner's position, reportedly offered a greater field-of-fire for the rear gunner. The pilot's position was along the aft-end of the upper wing member, a section cut-out of the member to give the pilot excellent vision and keep the member low against the fuselage. The fuselage itself employed plywood construction and was relatively compact and well-streamlined. The undercarriage sported a two-wheeled main unit under forward-center mass with a fixed tailskid at the rear.

The engine-of-choice became an Argus As.III series water-cooled unit of 180 horsepower and this was used to drive a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose.

As part of the aircraft's makeup, armament consisted of two machine guns: A single 7.92mm Spandau LMG 08/15 machine gun was managed by the pilot in a fixed, forward-firing mounting synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blade while a single 7.92mm Parabellum MG14 machine gun was set atop a trainable mounting at the rear cockpit. As it were, the aircraft could engage targets both in front and behind it, giving the system broad coverage against targets as well as potential trailing attackers.

The aircraft was born under the designation of "C.II" in 1916 but this was revised to become "CL.II" during the summer of 1917. The design was approved on July 21st of that year and a serial production order followed in September to cover a total of 500 units. Entry into service began rather quickly - as soon as October 1917.

In service, the aircraft proved its worth despite such a short developmental life. Maneuverability and performance were deemed sound and its standard armament made it an inherently versatile platform - the aircraft would eventually tackle roles beyond that of fighter-interception duties and escort bomber groups, attack ground targets, and provide low-level reconnaissance as needed. The platform could hold its own against any traditional, single-seat fighter mount of the day and provide a painful surprise through its rear gunner position on unsuspecting trailing opponents. Versatility was such that some of the lot were used in advanced flight training courses before the end of the war. Airplane maker Roland went on to construct at least 200 CL.II fighters under license as the "CL.II(ROL)" during 1918 for this role alone.

By February of 1918, the war's final year, the German Air Service could count as many as 295 CL.IIs in inventory for frontline fighting. However, Hannover had already begun work on a refined form, the "CL.III" (detailed elsewhere on this site), and its improved variant, the "CL.IIIa", so the impact of the CL.II series was affected heading into the war's closing months. Some of the original ordered stock of CL.II fighters were, in fact, completed to the CL.IIIa standard.

LFG also manufactured the CL.II under license as the "CL.IIa" during the war years. The first locally-built Polish aircraft was the CL.II, copied as the CWL SK-1 "Slowik" in 1919.


General Assessment

Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
MF Power Rating
The MF Power Rating takes into account over sixty individual factors related to this aircraft entry. The rating is out of 100 total possible points.
Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (103mph).

Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Hannover CL.II's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (495)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

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