Military Factory logo
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of navy warships

Nieuport 11 (Bebe)

Fighting Scout Biplane Aircraft

Nieuport 11 (Bebe)

Fighting Scout Biplane Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



The Nieuport 11 Bebe had its roots in a racing aircraft and proved a major component in ending the dreaded Fokker Scourge.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: France
YEAR: 1915
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport - France / Macchi - Italy
PRODUCTION: 7,200
OPERATORS: Belgium; Colombia; Czechoslovakia; France; Kingdom of Italy; Netherlands; Romania; Imperial Russia; Serbia; Siam; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Yugoslavia
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Nieuport 11 (Bebe) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 19.03 feet (5.8 meters)
WIDTH: 24.77 feet (7.55 meters)
HEIGHT: 8.04 feet (2.45 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 758 pounds (344 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 1,213 pounds (550 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Le Rhone 9C 9-cylinder air-cooled rotary engine developing 80 horsepower.
SPEED (MAX): 97 miles-per-hour (156 kilometers-per-hour; 84 knots)
RANGE: 205 miles (330 kilometers; 178 nautical miles)
CEILING: 15,092 feet (4,600 meters; 2.86 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 660 feet-per-minute (201 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



STANDARD:
1 x 7.7mm Lewis or Hotchkiss machine gun in upper wing.

OPTIONAL:
8 x La Prieur anti-balloon Rockets fitted alongside the V-type struts.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• Nieport 10 - Two-Seat Biplane Fighter Design on which the smaller Nieuport 11 is based on.
• Nieport 11 C1 - Official Designation
• Nieport 11 "Bebe" - Unofficial Base Series Designation; based on the larger Nie.10 model.
• Nieuport 16 - "Improved" 11 Model; fitted with Le Rhone 9J rotary piston engine of 110 horsepower; appearing in 1916.
• Nieport 17 C1 - "Improved" 16 Model with larger engine and better performance.
• Nieuport 1100 - Italian license-production by Macchi; 646 examples produced.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Nieuport 11 (Bebe) Fighting Scout Biplane Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 5/15/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Nieuport 11 "Bebe" (or "Baby" - known officially as the "Nieuport 11 C1") was one of the first true Allied fighters of World War 1. Developed from a prewar design intended for competition, the militarized form brought with it the expected excellent performance inherent in a racing platform. Designed in a mere four months, the Nieuport 11 - retaining the "Bebe" nickname of its predecessor - proved instrumental in ending the dominance of German Fokker-based aircraft during 1916 in what came to be known as the "Fokker Scourge". The French Nieuport series, as a whole, would end up becoming one of the best fighter lines in all of World War 1, eventually becoming collectively recognized by the name of "Nieuport Fighting Scouts".

Societe Anonyme Des Etablissements, established in 1909 and founded by Eduoard de Nie Port, had delved successfully into racing sesquiplane airframes for some time prior to World War 1. The sesquiplane approach was something of a biplane configuration though the lower wing assembly was decidedly smaller than the upper. With the war reaching its stride by August of 1914, and a growing faith in biplane winged aircraft, the Nieuport firm was charged with production of Voisan biplane aircraft which sported a "pusher" propeller arrangement, necessitated by the lack of a competent machien gun synchronization system when firing through a spinning propeller. These platforms proved adequate attempts at countering German fighter designs of the time but German offerings were seemingly always one step ahead which helped to maintain the tactical advantage for the interim.

Nieuport Chief Designer Gustave Delage began designing a new type of biplane prior to World War 1 which would have competed in the 1914 Gordon Bennett Trophy Race. The aircraft was of a sesquiplane wing arrangement and given the company designation of "Nieuport 10". However, with France's commitment to open war in the middle of 1914, thought turned to developing the single-seat Nieuport 10 into a militarized form capable of competing with German offerings on equal terms. The aircraft's staggered wing configuration required support of distinctive V-aligned struts and applicable wire bracing - the latter common to aircraft of the period. The Nieuport 10 was itself adopted as a general purpose mount (sometimes armed with an upper wing Lewis machine gun) and two-seat trainer platform by the French Air Force during the war. It garnered the nickname of "Bebe" - or "Baby" - a name that stuck with the militarized version for the span of her operational career. The Nieuport 10 was further adopted by Britain, Belgium, Brazil, Finland, Italy, Japan, Russia, Serbia, Thailand, Ukraine, the United States and the Soviet Union.

In the new militarized form, Delage attempted to retain much of the excellent performance specifications inherent in the preceding competition-minded racer. This approach would lay the foundation for a whole line of excellent French fighting aircraft still to come and make the Nieuport name a household brand by war's end. Delage's pursuit eventually realized the "Nieuport 11", a lightweight, single-seat fighter-type with the same single-bay sesquiplane wing arrangement of the Nieuport 10. The Nieuport 11 was the quintessential fighter of its time featuring a fixed two-wheel undercarriage with tail skid, an open-air cockpit and biplane wings. The aircraft owed its fine lines, smooth contours and general pedigree to the Nieuport racer prior and were fielded with a front-mounted 80 horsepower Le Rhone 9C, 9-cylinder, air-cooled rotary piston engine powering a two-blade propeller. The pilot sat positioned just behind and below the upper wing element with a generally good view out of the cockpit.

Primary armament was a single Hotchkiss- or Lewis-type 7.7mm (.303 caliber) machine gun fitted in the center of the upper wing as the Allies still lacked a viable synchronized machine gun solution that the Germans were already operating with. However, early Nieuport 11s were not armed in any way, being true scouts in their reconnaissance role (primarily with British and French scout squadrons). Only when armed did they become "fighting scouts" and could be operated in a fighter-type role when countering enemy aircraft and balloons. The Nieuport 11 was later cleared to fire up to 8 x Le Prieur anti-balloon rockets - these weapons, crude by modern standards, looked like nothing more than oversized bottle rockets fitted in a staggered arrangement along the sides of the V-struts.




Nieuport 11 (Bebe) (Cont'd)

Fighting Scout Biplane Aircraft

Nieuport 11 (Bebe) (Cont'd)

Fighting Scout Biplane Aircraft



Production of Nieuport 11's was handled by Societe Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport with first deliveries beginning in 1915. The type was fielded operationally for the first time on January 5th, 1916 and utilized in a frontline role until the summer of 1917 before given up for better, modern types.

Upon its introduction, the Nieuport 11's biplane wing design (generating more lift at the expense of increased drag) allowed Allied pilots to easily outmaneuver their German Fokker Eindekker monoplane contemporaries thanks, in part, to the utilization of ailerons in the design (as opposed to the rather utilitarian "wing-warping" action fielded by German Eindeckers). Additional benefits of the Nieuport 11 design lay in its excellent inherent speed, rate-of-climb and agility for the period. If the Nieuport 11 had but one limitation, it was in its lack of a synchronized machine gun system which limited armament. The placement of the machine gun along the upper wing forced a special reloading process to be worked, an operation that took the aircraft and pilot out of the fight for dangerously long periods of time. It should also be noted that the Nieuport 11 held a propensity for the wing assembly to buckle violently in high-speed flight, leading to fractures or outright break ups (mainly due to the single-bay, V-strut nature of the design). As such, it often took an experienced pilot to overcome these drawbacks and eventually make a name for himself while flying the Nieuport 11. Several names did, in fact, earn the status of "Ace" after having flown Nieuport 11s during portions of their career - names such as Ball, Baracca, Bishop, Navarre and Nungesser.

Italy produced the Nieuport 11 under license in 646 examples as the "Nieuport 1100". Sources suggest that local production occurred in Russia, Spain and the Netherlands as well. Such production and reproduction of Nieuport 11s proved - both directly and indirectly - the excellence of the Gustave Delage design.

The Bebe was officially retired from front-line service sometime in the summer of 1917 with the last Bebe squadrons being fielded in Italy. During its reign, the Bebe was largely responsible for a change in tactics on the part of the Germans - particularly during the pivotal Battle of Verdun (1916) where the "Baby" inflicted heavy losses on the enemy. As such, the value of the Nieuport 11 system to the Allied cause could not be overstated.

Back in 1916, Nieuport also unveiled the "Nieuport 16" in an attempt to modernize and improve the Nieuport 11 design for the changing requirements of war. The Nieuport 16 fielded a Le Rhone 9J rotary engine of 110 horsepower in a revised cowling. The attempt was more or less abandoned when the designed proved too "front-heavy". This initiative, however, led to the direct development of the "Nieuport 17" which went on to replace the Nieuport 11 beginning in March of 1916 and, itself, would become one of the most famous warplanes of World War 1.

Despite its relatively short career in the air, production of Nieuport 11s totaled approximately 7,200 Bebes which was an impressive number when accepted in the scope of World War 1 fighter production.




MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (97mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Nieuport 11 (Bebe)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
7200
7200

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.