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Curtiss Wanamaker (Model T / Model 3)

United States (1916)
Picture of Curtiss Wanamaker (Model T / Model 3) Four-Engine Triplane Flying Boat Aircraft
Picture of Curtiss Wanamaker (Model T / Model 3) Four-Engine Triplane Flying Boat Aircraft

A single example of the oversized Curtiss Wanamaker flying boat was all that was ever had of the American project - which survived for a short time in 1916.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Curtiss Wanamaker (Model T / Model 3) Four-Engine Triplane Flying Boat Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 3/26/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was started by Glenn H. Curtis in January of 1916 but Mr. Curtiss had been working on planes as early as 1909 with the experimental "Model No. 1" single-engine biplane. When war came to Europe in 1914, this prompted all manner of evolution for the field of aeronautics and Curtiss went to work on several aircraft types including the "Wanamaker", a four-engined triplane flying boat originally set up as a trans-Atlantic passenger-hauler and then modified to fulfill a military-minded maritime patrol bomber requirement for World War 1 (1914-1918). This aircraft became the first four-engined type to be constructed in the United States and, for its time in the air (and on the water), was the largest seaborne aircraft anywhere in the world.

The Wanamaker received its name from its financier, Rodman Wanamaker, who approached the Curtiss Company back in 1915 to help design, develop, and build an aircraft capable of meeting an Atlantic Crossing challenge set up by the Daily Mail of Britain (a prize worth 10,000 pounds!). The efforts of this partnership and subsequent work eventually helped to produce the "Wanamaker Triplane" - which was also known as in-company as the Curtiss "Model T".

The aircraft was a behemoth by 1916 standards, standing several stories tall with a height of 31.3 feet. Its running length reached nearly 59 feet and the wingspan measured 134 feet (upper-most span). As a triplane, the aircraft carried three distinct wing components, an upper span, a middle span, and a lower span. These were heavily braced through parallel struts and cabling. The upper wing element was given the greatest span (134 fee) while the middle element was slightly shorter at 100 feet and the lower spanning 78.2 feet. The fuselage sat under the lower-most span and was given a boat-like hull for water landings and take-offs. Over the middle span were the four engines set across in a side-by-side pattern. The tail unit incorporated a single vertical fin and a pair of horizontal planes. The total crew complement numbered six personnel and they were wholly enclosed within the fuselage - this during the age of open-air cockpits. Empty weight was 15,645lb with a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 22,000lb. Electrically-assisted controls were introduced to aid in controlling of the massive machine.
The design was eventually revealed to carry 4 x Curtiss V-4 engines of 250 horsepower each and all arranged in "puller" configuration. All told, the aircraft could reach speeds of 100 miles per hour out to a range of 675 miles and stay airborne for up to seven hours. Rate-of-climb was a respectable 400 feet-per-minute.

The first (and eventually only) Model T specimen emerged from the Curtiss facility in Buffalo, New York during July of 1916. Because Britain was already embroiled in World War 1 (1914-1918) it took an interest in this long-range over-water aircraft as a maritime patrol bomber and its Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) looked to secure twenty of the Curtiss flying boats. However, unfortunately for Curtiss, the required engines were not yet available by the time British interest had peaked so, to facilitate the sale, the aircraft was disassembled and shipped via boat to Britain where it would be reassembled and outfitted with 4 x French-originated Renault 12F V-12 water-cooled piston engines of 240 horsepower each, these driving four-bladed wooden propellers. In this form, the aircraft was stationed at RNAS Felixstowe during 1916. Before long, the engine fit was switched over to 4 x Rolls-Royce Eagle models and the aircraft was tested on its first-flight ever that year. However, the aircraft crashed landed and was written off as a complete loss and this prompted the RNAS to terminate the contract for the remaining nineteen Wanamakers and its story more-or-less ended there.

The British then took the idea behind the Curtiss design and evolved it into the Felixstowe "Fury" (detailed elsewhere on this site), another mammoth flying boat design of the period, with changes instituted to suit British military requirements (again for the maritime patrol bomber role). This aircraft, too, existed in only a single completed example and led a short operational life, first-flown in November of 1918 and retired as soon as August 1919.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (99mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Curtiss Wanamaker's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
1
1


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
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National Flag Graphic
Origin: United States
Year: 1916
Type: Four-Engine Triplane Flying Boat Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company - USA
Production: 1
Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Global Operators:
United Kingdom (retired)
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Curtiss Wanamaker model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
6


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
58.89 ft


Meters
17.95 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
134.51 ft


Meters
41 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
31.33 ft


Meters
9.55 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
15,642 lb


Kilograms
7,095 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
22,046 lb


Kilograms
10,000 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
4 x Renault 12F V-12 liquid-cooled piston engines developing 240 horsepower each (later Rolls-Royce Eagles) and driving two-bladed propeller units.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
99 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
160 kph


Knots
86 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
674 mi


Kilometers
1,085 km


Nautical Miles
586 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
11,647 ft


Meters
3,550 m


Miles
2.21 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
400 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
122 m/min

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

None.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Wanamaker - Base Series Name
• Wanamaker Triplane - Alternative Name
• Model T - Company Designation
• Model 3 - Alternative Company Designation