Military Factory logo
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of navy warships
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting

Harbin Y-12

Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft

Harbin Y-12

Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
IMAGES
Overview



The Harbin Y-12 serves as a turboprop utility platform for a plethora of global operators including China and its PLAAF.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: China
YEAR: 1985
STATUS: Active, In-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Harbin Aircraft Industry Group - China
PRODUCTION: 400
OPERATORS: Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ghana; Guyana; Indonesia; Iran; Kenya; Kiribati; Malaysia; Mali; Mauritania; Micronesia; Mongolia; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Pakistan; Paraguay; Peru; Republic of the Congo; Seychelles; Sri Lanka; Tanzania; Tonga; Uganda; Zambia
National flag of Cambodia
CAM
National flag of China
CHN
National flag of Colombia
COL
National flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo
DRC
National flag of Djibouti
DJI
National flag of Eritrea
ERI
National flag of Ghana
GHA
National flag of Guyana
GUY
National flag of Indonesia
IDO
National flag of Iran
IRA
National flag of Kenya
KEN
National flag of Kiribati
KIR
National flag of Malaysia
MLA
National flag of Mali
MAL
National flag of Mauritania
MAR
National flag of Mongolia
MNG
National flag of Myanmar
MYM
National flag of Namibia
NAM
National flag of Nepal
NEP
National flag of Pakistan
PAK
National flag of Paraguay
PAR
National flag of Peru
PER
National flag of Republic of the Congo
ROTC
National flag of Seychelles
SEY
National flag of Sri Lanka
SRI
National flag of Tanzania
TAN
National flag of Tonga
TNG
National flag of Uganda
UGA
National flag of Zambia
ZAM
Technical Specifications



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Harbin Y-12 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 2
POWER: 2 x Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines developing 620 horsepower each and driving four-bladed propeller units.
ADVERTISEMENTS
LENGTH

0
feet
0
meters
WIDTH / SPAN

0
feet
0
meters
HEIGHT

0
feet
0
meters
EMPTY WGT

0
pounds
0
kilograms
M.T.O.W.

0
pounds
0
kilograms
SPEED (MAX)

0
mph
0
kph
0
knots
CEILING

0
feet
0
meters
0
miles
RANGE

0
miles
0
kilometers
0
nautical miles
CLIMB RATE

0
ft/min
0
meters-per-minute
Armament



None.
Variants / Models



• Y-12 - Base Series Designation
• Y-12 (I) - Initial form; fitted with PWC PT6A-11 turboprop engines of 500 horsepower each; serving as prototype and about 30 pre-series/early-series aircraft.
• Y-12 (II) - Improved model with uprated PT6A-27 engines offering enhanced performance and capabilities.
• Y-12 (III) - Power from WJ-9 turboprop
• Y-12 (IV) / Y-12C - Improved III-model with increased wingspan and modified wingtips; 19-seat passenger capacity; WJ-9 turboprops used in Y-12C.
• Y-12D - Chinese Army variant used in parachute training; four-bladed propellers.
• Y-12E - Powered by PT6A-135A engines; four-bladed propellers.
• Y-12F - Extensively modified variant with retractable undercarriage, more powerful engines, larger dimensions, and all-new wings.
• Y-12G - Cargo-minded variant of the Y-12F
• "Turbo Panda" - Now-abandoned English/Japanese venture; based in the Y-12 (II).
• Twin Panda" - Abadoned initiative based in the Y-12 (II).


History



Detailing the development and operational history of the Harbin Y-12 Twin-Engine Turboprop Utility Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 11/7/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Y-12 is a modern, high-winged twin-turboprop-powered utility aircraft designed, developed, and manufactured by the local concern of Harbin Aircraft Industry Group of China. First flown on July 14th, 1982, the aircraft has been in constant production since service entry occurred in 1985. The type serves a myriad of operators on several continents, these customers ranging from Cambodia and Djibouti to Uganda and Zambia (though its primary user remains China). Its versatile design is such that the aircraft can serve at the military, government, and civilian levels.

The high-wing arrangement provides for excellent lift and drag properties, giving the Y-12 equally-excellent short-field / rough-field capabilities. The mainplanes are braced by thick struts emanating from the lower sides of the fuselage. The cockpit carries its crew of two in a side-by-side seating arrangement with good views had over the short nosecone. The fuselage is slab-sided to better serve internal volume and the empennage raises as it tapers to the rear. Rectangular windows run along the sides of the fuselage. The tail unit is completed by a single, clipped vertical fin and low-set horizontal planes. The undercarriage of the Y-12, of three-wheeled design, is fixed for simplicity and ruggedness.

Origins of the Y-12 are based in the earlier Y-11, an aircraft also developed by Harbin, and this product was another twin-engined, high-winged performer of similar form and function (though only about 50 were produced). The goal of the new program was to expound upon the stronger qualities of the earlier Y-11 so improvements were instituted throughout the design. Dimensions increased and all-new mainplane members were forged as the project moved along during the early 1980s. A single prototype was used to prove the Y-12 design sound.

Once approved, the Y-12 entered production with thirty early-form aircraft designated as "Y-12 (I)". These carried a pair of American-Canadian Pratt & Whitney Canada (PWC) PT6A-11 turboprops of 500 horsepower each. More improvements followed (including the introduction of uprated PWC PT6A-27 engines), once in service, to produce the "Y-12 (II)" designation. The series was then officially certified for Chinese airspace in 1985.

The "Y-12 (III)" was in the works with the indigenous WJ-9 turboprop to power it and this mark eventually became the Y-12C in service. The 19-seat "Y-12 (IV)", certified around 1995, became an improved model with increased wingspan and modified wingtips.

The Y-12D serves the Chinese Army in the parachute training role and sports four-bladed propeller units. The Y-12E, certified around 2006, has seating for 18 and is driven by 2 x PWC PT6A-135A engines with four-bladed propellers.

The Y-12F is a heavily-modified variant featuring all-new wing mainplanes, larger fuselage, more powerful engines (PWC PT6A-65B), and a wholly-retractable wheeled undercarriage. Performance of this model is improved over earlier marks. A first-flight of this aircraft was recorded in December of 2010 and the type was certified before the end of 2015. The Y-12G is its proposed cargo-minded variant.




Media







Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (205mph).

Graph average of 225 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Harbin Y-12's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (400)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
400
400

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.


Site Disclaimer  |  Privacy Policy  |  Cookies  |  Site Map

www.MilitaryFactory.com. Site content ©2003- MilitaryFactory.com, All Rights Reserved.

The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com.

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world.


Facebook Logo YouTube Logo