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Embraer EMB-312 Tucano

Brazil (1983)
Picture of Embraer EMB-312 Tucano Basic Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft

The Embraer EMB-312 Tucano proved itself a modest success for the Brazilian company, finding favor with several notable operators worldwide.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Embraer EMB-312 Tucano Basic Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/9/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

Brazilian defense industry suffers what most mid-sized military powers suffer - a heavy reliance on foreign products to satisfy local requirements. In recent decades, the South American nation has joined others like China, India and Turkey in nurturing local design, development and production of such systems to eliminate the need for foreign dependency. In 1969, this movement led to the formation of state-owned Embraer and the company began by producing the Italian Aermacchi MB-326 advanced jet trainer under license - this experience proved fruitful as it led to an expansion of capabilities for the brand which, today, includes production of indigenous light aircraft, large aircraft and business jets.

The EBM-312 "Tucano" would go on to become one of the company's greatest achievements on the global stage - its first true commercial success. The aircraft was backed by the Brazilian Air Force in a 1978 initiative which produced a prototype first-flight on August 16th, 1980. The versatile aircraft could be used in both basic training and light attack roles and the service liked what it saw to commit to a first-batch of 118 aircraft with an option for 50 further units. First deliveries commenced in September of 1983 and another ten aircraft were added in 1990 (the last forty of the original option was also eventually exercised).

At its core, the Tucano was built around proven qualities common to many basic trainers already on the world stage. A lightweight design was chosen that featured low-mounted, straight wing mainplanes, a nose-mounted engine, tandem seating under a long, unobstructed canopy and a traditional single-finned tail unit. The undercarriage was wholly retractable and of a tricycle arrangement. The compact aircraft proved robust enough to mount external munitions (or fuel tanks) under its wings for the training or attack roles.

Dimensions included a length of 32.3 feet, a wingspan of 36.5 feet and a height of 11 feet. Empty weight was 4,000lb against an MTOW of 7,000lb. Power was from a single Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop engine developing 750 horsepower and driving a three-bladed propeller unit at the nose. Performance specs included a maximum speed of 285 miles per hour, a range out to 1,200 miles, a service ceiling up to 28,700 feet and a rate-of-climb nearing 1,900 feet-per-minute.
Globally, the Tucano went on to become a customer favorite as it was taken on by the air services of Angola, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Egypt, Honduras, Iran, Mauritania, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela (former operators include both France and Iraq). The Brazilian Air Force expects to withdraw and replace its fleet of Tucanos sometime in the early 2020s. Total production of Tucanos reached 624 units during the span of 1980 to 1996.

Variants of the line began with the base EMB-312A form and these followed the YT-27 pre-series aircraft. The T-27 was its basic trainer model and the AT-27 became the dedicated light attack form. The follow-up EMB-312F was a more powerful design developed specifically for the French Air Force. The EMB-312S became a local British-built version (known as the Short Tucano by Short Brothers) and was powered by a Honeywell TPE331-12B engine and fitted with minor improvements. The T.Mk 1 was ordered by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) while the Mk.51 was purchased by Kenya and the Mk.52 by Kuwait.

The EMB-312G1 existed as a prototype only and outfitted with a Garrett engine. Another abandoned effort was the EMB-312H sponsored by Northrop Grumman for possible sale to the USAF - it did not succeed.

The Embraer EMB-314 (A-29) "Super Tucano" is an advanced version of the original Tucano platform and has been developed as a basic trainer and attack / counter-insurgency aircraft. Over two-hundred of this variant have been built to date (2017) and a key operator is the rebuilding Afghanistan Air Force which has ordered 20 units. The Brazilian Air Force itself has a fleet of 99 of the type and the model is challenging the ongoing USAF basic trainer competition.




General Assessment (BETA)
Firepower  
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Performance  
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Survivability  
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Versatility  
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Impact  
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Rating: 92 (of 100)
The rating is an internal assessment derived from forty factors pertaining to this entry.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (286mph).

    Graph average of 225 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
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  SYD
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  LAX
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  NYC
Graph showcases the Embraer EMB-312 Tucano's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
624
624


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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Origin: Brazil
Year: 1983
Type: Basic Trainer / Light Attack Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Embraer - Brazil
Production: 624
Status: Active, In-Service
Global Operators:
Angola; Argentina; Brazil; Colombia; Egypt; France; Honduras; Iraq; Iran; Mauritania; Paraguay; Peru; United Kingdom (Short Tucano); Venezuela
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Embraer EMB-312 Tucano model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
2


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
32.32 ft


Meters
9.85 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
36.58 ft


Meters
11.15 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
11.15 ft


Meters
3.4 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
3,990 lb


Kilograms
1,810 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
7,000 lb


Kilograms
3,175 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-25C turboprop engine developing 750 horsepower.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
286 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
460 kph


Knots
248 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
1,190 mi


Kilometers
1,915 km


Nautical Miles
1,034 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
28,707 ft


Meters
8,750 m


Miles
5.44 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
1,900 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
579 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft machine gun pod
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Graphical image of an aircraft external fuel tank
Armament - Hardpoints (4):

Optional: Gun pods, rocket pods, conventional drop bombs, practice bombs, and external (jettisonable) fuel tanks as needed across four underwing (two per wing) hardpoints.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• EMB-312 "Tucano" - Base Series Designation
• EMB-312A - Primary design model
• YT-27 - Pre-series aircraft based on EMB-312A.
• T-27 - Basic trainer variant based on EMB-312A.
• AT-27 - Light attack variant based on EMB-312A.
• EMB-312F - More powerful version developed for the French Air Force.
• EMB-312S ("Short Tucano") - Improved model produced in Britain by Short Brothers; fitted with Honeywell TPE331-12B engine mated to a four-bladed propeller; other improvements fitted.
• Tucano T.Mk 1 - RAF trainer mount
• Tucano Mk.51 - Kenya Air Force designation
• Tucano Mk.52 - Kuwait Air Force designation
• EMB-312G-1 - Proposed model of 1986 fitted with Garrett engine.
• EMB-312H - Proposed model intended for the USAF; sponsored stateside by Northrop Grumman; lengthened fuselage; more powerful engine; revised to become EMB-314 Super Tucano.
• EMB-314 "Super Tucano" - Advanced, modernized training and attack platform.