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Vought F-8 Crusader

United States (1957)
Picture of Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft
Picture of Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft Picture of Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft
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The storied Vought F-8 Crusader carrier-based fighter served in an operational role for over 40 years with the United States, the Philippines, and France.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft.  Entry last updated on 2/21/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The Vought F-8 "Crusader" was a direct response to a United States Navy requirement for a modern supersonic, carrier-based fighter. Utilizing nearly the identical powerplant of the North American F-100 "Super Sabre", the F-8 Crusader became the world's first carrier-based aircraft to break the speed of sound. The single-seat Crusader featured a long fuselage with a swept-back high-wing assembly and single-engine installation. A single vertical tail fin was fitted over the rear of the fuselage. The engine, exhausting through a large jet pipe at rear, generated upwards of 18,000lb thrust with an afterburn capability. As a naval carrier-based fighter, the aircraft was fitted primarily with 4 x 20mm internal cannons for close-in work and supported early forms of American air-to-surface missiles (no ground attack capability was added) including the AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range missile. Crusaders were eventually pressed into service over the skies of Vietnam with the growing American commitment in Southeast Asia. There it served with both the United States Marine Corps (USMC) and the United States Navy (USN).

As a predominantly cannon-armed fighter, the F-8 has been seen by many as the end of the line for all-cannon-armed fighter jets - making the F-8 the last of the classic "gunfighters".

Of eight initial submissions viewed by USN authorities, the Vought F-8 design was selected for prototyping (as the XF8U - two examples completed). Carrier operations required special qualities in an aircraft, none more so important than the ability to take-off from a short runway, have an integrated tailhook for landing and feature a reinforced undercarriage capable of withstanding the violent force of carrier deck landings. The Vought submission fit the bill with the initial production version designated as F8U-1. The F-8 was also engineered with a special "tilting" wing assembly that could move up 7-degrees from its rest position. This minor movement allowed the aircraft the ability to achieve the short take-off and landings consistent with carrier operations.

The production-quality F8U-1 showcased underwing missile rails which proved a feature not found on the prototypes. The aircraft was capable of supersonic flight and set various speed and endurance records in its early career. In fact, it would be future astronaut and future United States Senator John Glenn that piloted a reconnaissance version of the Crusader from one American coast to the other - a flight taking just over 3 hours. 1962 saw the United States Navy adopt a revised aircraft designation system set down by the United States Air Force (USAF). From this point onwards, all Crusader variants (and other USN aircraft) would inherit all-new designations based on this change. As such, the F8U-1 simply became the F-8A model.


Picture of the Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft
Picture of the Vought F-8 Crusader Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft


The F-8 stocked the USN and USMC inventories during the Vietnam War (1955-1975. Its first operational combat sorties took place on August 2nd, 1964. After an attack by four North Vietnamese patrol boats on the USS Maddox destroyer, four Crusaders were dispatched from USS Ticonderoga and were able to sink one of the escaping vessels. The U.S. Navy would go on to utilize the Crusader in more of a traditional dogfighting interceptor role whilst the US Marines operated it as a limited strike/attack aircraft.

The Crusader eventually proved its worth through action and resiliency. It found frontline service across four decades including service with the French Navy (Aeronavale). French Crusaders were a specially-produced export breed designated as F-8E(FN) and these aircraft were given blown flaps to assist the aircraft in landing and taking off from the shorter and smaller French-made carriers. The French acquired some 42 Crusaders in this form and these served until replaced by the modern Dassault "Rafale" 4th Generation fighter beginning in 2000. This retirement marked the last official operational F-8 in service anywhere.

The Philippines Air Force was the third and final operator of the F-8 and these were retired in 1991. These were second-hand USN aircraft purchased when more modern products proved fiscally elusive to the Philippines government. 35 aircraft were delivered and were F-8H models. All were scrapped.

The XF8U-3 was a highly modified offshoot of the F-8 Crusader line featuring a revised air intake, nose cone assembly and large, folding ventral strakes under the tail. This version became known as "Crusader III" following the original F-8A ("Crusader I") and F-8C ("Crusader II") models. The prototypes competed unsuccessfully against the McDonnell Douglas offering that would eventually become the fabled F-4 "Phantom II" fighter. Both the F-8 and F-4 served in the skies over Vietnam.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 1200mph
Lo: 600mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (1,118mph).

    Graph average of 900 miles-per-hour.
Relative Operational Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Vought F-8 Crusader's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era Impact
Pie graph section
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
1219
1219


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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Supported Mission Types:
Air-to-Air
Interception
Unmanned
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Training
Anti-Submarine
Anti-Ship
Airborne Early Warning
MEDEVAC
Electronic Warfare
Maritime/Navy
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Search/Rescue
Recon/Scouting
Special Forces
X-Plane/Development
National Flag Graphic
National Origin: United States
Service Year: 1957
Classification Type: Carrier-Borne Naval Fighter Aicraft
Manufacturer(s): Vought - USA
Production Units: 1,219
Operational Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Global Operators:
France; Philippines; United States
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Vought F-8 Crusader model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
54.49 ft


Meters
16.61 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
35.17 ft


Meters
10.72 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
15.75 ft


Meters
4.8 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
19,925 lb


Kilograms
9,038 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
34,000 lb


Kilograms
15,422 kg

Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Pratt & Whitney J57-P-20A turbojet engine with afterburning developing 18,000 lb of thrust.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
1,118 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
1,800 kph


Knots
972 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
600 mi


Kilometers
966 km


Nautical Miles
522 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
58,704 ft


Meters
17,893 m


Miles
11.12 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
19,000 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
5,791 m/min

Armament - Hardpoints (4):

STANDARD:
4 x 20mm internal cannons

OPTIONAL:
Mission-specific armament included:
2 OR 4 x AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles
2 x AGM12 Bullpup air-to-surface missiles

French Naval Variant:
4 x 20mm cannons
2 x Matra R.530 air-to-air missiles
4 x Matra Magic R.550 air-to-air missiles
Visual Armory:

Graphical image of an air-to-air missile weapon
Graphical image of a short-range air-to-air missile
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an aircraft air-to-surface missile
Variants: Series Model Variants
• F8U-1 - Initial Production Model
• F8U-1P - Reconnaissance Variant
• F8U-1E - Limited All-Weather Model with improved radar system.
• F8U-2 - Improved radar system; Improved fire control system; Uprated J57-P-16 powerplant generating 16,900lbs of thrust with afterburn.
• F8U-2N - Updated avionics systems; Uprated J57-P-20 powerplant increasing thrust to 18,000lbs.
• F8U-2NE - Improved all-weather model with updated radar and fire control systems.
• F-8A - F8U-1 Model Redesignated
• F-8B - F8U-1E Model Redesignated
• F-8C - F8U-2 Model Redesignated
• F-8D - F8U-2N Model Redesignated
• F-8E - F8U-2NE Model Redesignated
• RF-8A - F8U-1P Model Redesignated
• F-8E(FN) - French Naval Export Version; blown flaps for reduced landing speeds and provision for French-based Matra air-to-air missile systems to replace AIM-9 Sidewinders.
• F-8P - Refurbished F-8H models exported to the Philippine Air Force.