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Caudron C.440 (Goeland)

Light Utility Military / Civilian Aircraft


Over 1,700 Caudron C.440 Goelands were produced during a service life that covered the inter-war period, World War 2 and the early Cold War years.

Detailing the development and operational history of the Caudron C.440 (Goeland) Light Utility Military / Civilian Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 8/24/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
French aeronautical engineer Marcel Riffard, an employee of the Caudron concern, designed a new twin-engine light aircraft for the company in the early-1930s that became known as the Caudron C.440 "Goeland". First-flown in 1934, the six-seat, twin-engined, monoplane-winged light utility platform was sold to both private carriers and, later, the French Air Force and French Navy (among others) - seeing service with the latter two during World War 2 (1939-1945). Before the end of its production run, some 1,702 examples were be produced. The type was also pressed into service during the "Miracle of Dunkirk" in 1940.

The Goeland was a conventionally-arranged aircraft with a low-set monoplane wing fitted ahead of midships. The cockpit sat over and behind a short nose assembly. A tail-dragger undercarriage was featured for ground-running. The fuselage tapered to the empennage to which a single, curved vertical stabilizer was fitted. The horizontal planes at the tail were mounted low. The crew numbered two and dimensions included a length of 44.10 feet, a wingspan of 57.8 feet and a height of 11.1 feet. Empty weight was 5,055lb with a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 7,715lb. Power was from a pair of Renault 6Q engiens of 220 horsepower each. Performance included a maximum speed of 185 miles per hour, a range out to 620 miles, a service ceiling of 23,000 feet and a rate-of-climb nearing 650 feet-per-minute.

Three prototypes were built to the early C.440 standard and used to prove the design sound. Four C.441 aircraft followed with Renault 6Q-01 engines and slight dihedral of the out wing panels. Counter-rotating propellers were added to the C.444 of which seventeen aircraft were built. The C.445 was similar in form and function but the dihedral seen in the C.441 was increased in this variant - 114 examples followed as did several subvariants. The C.446 "Super Goeland" was seen in just one example. The C.447 was an air ambulance model and 31 were produced to the standard. Seven of the C.448 were manufactured and these carried superchargers at the engines. The C.449 marked the final production form of the Goeland line and numbered 349 examples with various subvariants added to the mix.

Global operators (beyond the French) became Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany (Nazi), Slovakia, Spain and Yugoslavia.

As was the case with many-an-aircraft following the start of World War 2 in September of 1939, the Goeland was requisitioned by the French military services for action in the conflict. These operated until the Fall of France in May-June 1940 and were taken over by the conquering Germans. The Germans used the line in both civilian and military roles while the Slovak Republic commissioned a dozen aircraft (C.445M) during 1942. Following the war, the series entered serial production once more though, at about this time, the Caudron name was absorbed under the SNCA du Nord brand label which made the Goeland a Nord product from then on. Several hundred were built in the post-war period and all operated in civilian market roles.


YEAR: 1935
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Caudron / SNCA du Nord - France
LENGTH: 44.88 ft (13.68 m)
WIDTH: 57.74 ft (17.6 m)
HEIGHT: 11.15 ft (3.4 m)
EMPTY WEIGHT: 5,071 lb (2,300 kg)
MTOW: 7,716 lb (3,500 kg)
POWER: 2 x Renault 6Q engines developing 220 horsepower each.
SPEED: 186 mph (300 kph; 162 kts)
CEILING: 22,966 feet (7,000 m; 4.35 miles)
RANGE: 621 miles (1,000 km; 540 nm)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 650 ft/min (198 m/min)
OPERATORS: Belgium; Bulgaria; France; Nazi Germany; Slovakia; Spain; Yugoslavia

Variants / Models

• C.440 - Base Series Designation; prototype models; three examples produced.
• C.441 - Fitted with Renault 6Q-01 series engines; dihedral outer panel wings; 4 examples.
• C.444 - Counter-rotating propellers; 17 examples.
• C.445 - Increased dihedral out panels; 114 examples.
• C.445/1 - C.445 subvariant; 2 examples.
• C.445/2 - C.445 subvariant; 3 examples.
• C.445/3 - C.445 subvariant; post-WW2 model; 510 examples.
• C.445M - C.445 subvariant; militarized variant; 404 examples.
• C.445R - C.445 subvariant; long-range model; 1 example.
• C.446 "Super Goeland" - 1 example completed.
• C.447 - Air ambulance variant; 31 examples.
• C.448 - Supercharged engines; 7 examples.
• C.449 - Final production model; 349 examples.
• C.449/1 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/2 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/3 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/4 - C.449 subvariant; photographic survey variant outfitted with specialized equipment.
• C.449/5 - C.449 subvariant

Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 200mph
Lo: 100mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (186mph).

Graph average of 150 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Caudron C.440M's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (1,702)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

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