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Caudron C.440 (Goeland)

Light Utility Military / Civilian Aircraft

Over 1,700 Caudron C.440 Goelands were produced during a service life that covered the inter-war period, World War 2 and the early Cold War years.
Authored By: Staff Writer | Edited: 8/24/2018
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Year: 1935
Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Manufacturer(s): Caudron / SNCA du Nord - France
Production: 1,702
Capabilities: Transport; Commercial Market; VIP Transport; Medical Evacuation; Training;
Crew: 2
Length: 44.88 ft (13.68 m)
Width: 57.74 ft (17.6 m)
Height: 11.15 ft (3.4 m)
Weight (Empty): 5,071 lb (2,300 kg)
Weight (MTOW): 7,716 lb (3,500 kg)
Power: 2 x Renault 6Q engines developing 220 horsepower each.
Speed: 186 mph (300 kph; 162 kts)
Ceiling: 22,966 feet (7,000 m; 4.35 miles)
Range: 621 miles (1,000 km; 540 nm)
Rate-of-Climb: 650 ft/min (198 m/min)
Operators: Belgium; Bulgaria; France; Nazi Germany; Slovakia; Spain; Yugoslavia
French aeronautical engineer Marcel Riffard, an employee of the Caudron concern, designed a new twin-engine light aircraft for the company in the early-1930s that became known as the Caudron C.440 "Goeland". First-flown in 1934, the six-seat, twin-engined, monoplane-winged light utility platform was sold to both private carriers and, later, the French Air Force and French Navy (among others) - seeing service with the latter two during World War 2 (1939-1945). Before the end of its production run, some 1,702 examples were be produced. The type was also pressed into service during the "Miracle of Dunkirk" in 1940.

The Goeland was a conventionally-arranged aircraft with a low-set monoplane wing fitted ahead of midships. The cockpit sat over and behind a short nose assembly. A tail-dragger undercarriage was featured for ground-running. The fuselage tapered to the empennage to which a single, curved vertical stabilizer was fitted. The horizontal planes at the tail were mounted low. The crew numbered two and dimensions included a length of 44.10 feet, a wingspan of 57.8 feet and a height of 11.1 feet. Empty weight was 5,055lb with a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 7,715lb. Power was from a pair of Renault 6Q engiens of 220 horsepower each. Performance included a maximum speed of 185 miles per hour, a range out to 620 miles, a service ceiling of 23,000 feet and a rate-of-climb nearing 650 feet-per-minute.

Three prototypes were built to the early C.440 standard and used to prove the design sound. Four C.441 aircraft followed with Renault 6Q-01 engines and slight dihedral of the out wing panels. Counter-rotating propellers were added to the C.444 of which seventeen aircraft were built. The C.445 was similar in form and function but the dihedral seen in the C.441 was increased in this variant - 114 examples followed as did several subvariants. The C.446 "Super Goeland" was seen in just one example. The C.447 was an air ambulance model and 31 were produced to the standard. Seven of the C.448 were manufactured and these carried superchargers at the engines. The C.449 marked the final production form of the Goeland line and numbered 349 examples with various subvariants added to the mix.

Global operators (beyond the French) became Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany (Nazi), Slovakia, Spain and Yugoslavia.

As was the case with many-an-aircraft following the start of World War 2 in September of 1939, the Goeland was requisitioned by the French military services for action in the conflict. These operated until the Fall of France in May-June 1940 and were taken over by the conquering Germans. The Germans used the line in both civilian and military roles while the Slovak Republic commissioned a dozen aircraft (C.445M) during 1942. Following the war, the series entered serial production once more though, at about this time, the Caudron name was absorbed under the SNCA du Nord brand label which made the Goeland a Nord product from then on. Several hundred were built in the post-war period and all operated in civilian market roles.



Variants / Models

• C.440 - Base Series Designation; prototype models; three examples produced.
• C.441 - Fitted with Renault 6Q-01 series engines; dihedral outer panel wings; 4 examples.
• C.444 - Counter-rotating propellers; 17 examples.
• C.445 - Increased dihedral out panels; 114 examples.
• C.445/1 - C.445 subvariant; 2 examples.
• C.445/2 - C.445 subvariant; 3 examples.
• C.445/3 - C.445 subvariant; post-WW2 model; 510 examples.
• C.445M - C.445 subvariant; militarized variant; 404 examples.
• C.445R - C.445 subvariant; long-range model; 1 example.
• C.446 "Super Goeland" - 1 example completed.
• C.447 - Air ambulance variant; 31 examples.
• C.448 - Supercharged engines; 7 examples.
• C.449 - Final production model; 349 examples.
• C.449/1 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/2 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/3 - C.449 subvariant
• C.449/4 - C.449 subvariant; photographic survey variant outfitted with specialized equipment.
• C.449/5 - C.449 subvariant
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