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Junkers J1

Imperial Germany (1915)
Picture of Junkers J1 Experimental All-Metal Monoplane Aircraft

The sole, all-metal and revolutionary Junkers J1 monoplane aircraft constructed during World War 1 met its fate in an Allied bombing raid during World War 2.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Junkers J1 Experimental All-Metal Monoplane Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 12/2/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

German engineer Hugo Junkers championed the idea of an all-metal aircraft to reduce the need for complicated, drag-inducing external bracing and multiple wing members common to most designs leading up to, and those appearing during, World War 1 (1914-1918). He therefore concentrated his efforts on monoplane form relying on corrugated steel sheet skinning with a steel understructure to produce his first all-metal aircraft - the pioneering Junkers "J1" - regarded as the first practical all-metal aircraft anywhere in the world. His work was only furthered by Junkers & Co's involvement in the Grand War that overtook Europe during the summer of 1914.

In July of 1915, Junkers received the go-ahead to develop a two-seat all-metal aircraft based around his all-metal concept. Desired specifications included a maximum speed of just over 80 miles per hour. This work produced the J1 which incorporated many traditional aircraft elements of the period including a nose-mounted engine (driving a two-bladed propeller), an open-air cockpit, slab-sided fuselage and fixed wheeled undercarriage. Of note was the monoplane wings in play which were mid-mounted along the forward fuselage sides - no external bracing of any kind was used. The tail unit was conventional, sporting a single (all-moving) fin with low-set horizontal planes. Dimensions included a wingspan of 42.4 feet, a length of 28.3 feet and a height of 10 feet. Empty weight was 2,030lb against a MTOW of 2,380lb. Power came from a Mercedes D.II six-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 120 horsepower. The engine drove a two-bladed propeller at the nose in traditional fashion.

Testing of the aircraft began before the end of 1915 and a first-flight was recorded on December 12thof that year. A brief "hop" action resulted in damage to one of the wings which grounded the design until January 1916. An altitude of 260 feet was reached later that month and more funding followed to further drive the project.

The J1 served out its time in the air as a technology demonstrator and was never a candidate for formal military service in World War 1. It was used to prove the Hugo Junkers concept of an all-metal aircraft viable. Only one J1 aircraft was built.

The J1 prototype survived up until December of 1944 at which point it was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid. At the time, the aircraft resided as a showpiece with the Deutsches Museum of Munich.

For its time in aviation history, the revolutionary J1 managed a top speed of 110 miles per hour and its handling and stability were described as sound by test pilots. Performance was also slightly better than some of its contemporaries.

Any available statistics for the Junkers J1 Experimental All-Metal Monoplane Aircraft are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (110mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
Relative Operational Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Junkers J1's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era Impact
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
1
1


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
Supported Mission Types:
Air-to-Air
Interception
Unmanned
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Training
Anti-Submarine
Anti-Ship
Airborne Early Warning
MEDEVAC
Electronic Warfare
Maritime/Navy
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Search/Rescue
Recon/Scouting
Special Forces
X-Plane/Development
National Flag Graphic
National Origin: Imperial Germany
Service Year: 1915
Classification Type: Experimental All-Metal Monoplane Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Junkers & Company - German Empire
Production Units: 1
Global Operators:
Imperial Germany
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Junkers J1 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
28.38 ft


Meters
8.65 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
42.65 ft


Meters
13 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
10.20 ft


Meters
3.11 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
2,028 lb


Kilograms
920 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
2,381 lb


Kilograms
1,080 kg

Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Mercedes D.II six-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 120 horsepower and driving a two-bladed propeller at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
110 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
177 kph


Knots
96 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
186 mi


Kilometers
300 km


Nautical Miles
162 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
1,001 ft


Meters
305 m


Miles
0.19 mi

Armament - Hardpoints (0):

None.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• J1 - Base Project Model Designation; single aircraft completed.