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Pashinin I-21

Single-Seat Monoplane Fighter Protoype

Pashinin I-21

Single-Seat Monoplane Fighter Protoype

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



The Pashinin I-21 fighter displayed several issues at the prototype stage which led to its abandonment by the end of 1941.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: Soviet Union
YEAR: 1940
MANUFACTURER(S): Pashinin OKB - Soviet Union
PRODUCTION: 3
OPERATORS: Soviet Union (cancelled)
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Pashinin I-21 model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 28.71 feet (8.75 meters)
WIDTH: 31.17 feet (9.5 meters)
HEIGHT: 8.69 feet (2.65 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 4,630 pounds (2,100 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 5,886 pounds (2,670 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Klimov M-105P V12 liquid-cooled inline piston engine developing 1,050 horsepower and driving three-bladed propeller unit at the nose.
SPEED (MAX): 360 miles-per-hour (580 kilometers-per-hour; 313 knots)
RANGE: 472 miles (760 kilometers; 410 nautical miles)
CEILING: 34,777 feet (10,600 meters; 6.59 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 4,133 feet-per-minute (1,260 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



PROPOSED:
1 x 20mm ShVAK OR 1 x 23mm BT-23 automatic cannon in nose firing through the propeller hub.
2 x 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns in wings (one per wing).
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• I-21 - Base Project Designation; three prototypes completed.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Pashinin I-21 Single-Seat Monoplane Fighter Protoype.  Entry last updated on 11/30/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
At one point, Mikhail Pashinin was employed by the Polikarpov aircraft concern and this served him well when attempting to develop his I-21 fighter - an all-new, all-modern monoplane intended to succeed the aging Polikarpov I-16 line in Soviet Air Force service. Pashinin was keen to implement lessons learned from Soviet involvement in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) as well as clashes with the Japanese and produced a sleek offering with good overall performance. However, the I-21 offered little in the way of gains when compared to competing designs from Mikoyan-Gurevich and Yakovlev - leaving just three flyable prototypes to show for the program.

Externally, the I-21 was given a sleek design with an aerodynamically refined fuselage. The cockpit was positioned aft of midships with the wing mainplanes set ahead of the cockpit and low against the fuselage sides. The nose contained the engine installation and this drove a traditional three-bladed propeller. The tail unit involved a single vertical fin with low-set horizontal planes. A tail-dragger undercarriage (retractable) was featured for ground running. The canopy was framed and offered generally adequate views of the action surrounding the aircraft but its placement so far aft meant that the wing mainplanes and long nose obstructed much of the action ahead and below.

Internally, the aircraft was constructed of welded steel tubing (forward fuselage) and wood (rear fuselage). The wings were metal with plywood skinning. Power would come from the in-development Klimov M-107 inline piston engine promising the needed output.

Proposed armament was 1 x 20mm ShVAK or 1 x 23mm BT-23 automatic cannon in the nose firing through the propeller hub and 2 x 7.62mm ShKAS machine guns, one per wing element. This provided good firepower against contemporary enemy aircraft types - particularly the 23mm cannon fit buried within the engine.

Prior to a first-flight, it became apparent that the M-107 inline would not be available as it ran into development troubles all its own. This forced the Klimov M-105P V12 of 1,050 horsepower to be used instead. A first-flight by way of first prototype was had on May 18th, 1940 with the Soviet Union having just wrapped up its "Winter War" with neighboring Finland back in March. Further examination of the aircraft showcased inadequate stability which led to a revision of the wings that greeted the second prototype. Handling issues persisted which led to a more refined third prototype, this example with further modified wing mainplanes, in January of 1941. The mainplanes now sported slight sweepback beyond mid-span and were given "clipped" tips but this did little to improve the design as a whole.

Despite promising straight-line performance from the prototypes, unresolved issues persisted and this eventually led a five-strong pre-series production order to be dropped - leaving just the three aforementioned prototypes. Soviet authorities elected to go with competing designs leaving the I-21 to the pages of history.

The I-21 designation was earlier used by the Ilyushin TsKB-32 which can add confusion.




MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (360mph).

    Graph average of 300 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
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  MSK
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  TKY
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  SYD
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  LAX
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  NYC
Graph showcases the Pashinin I-21's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
3
3

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


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Interception
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Aerial Tanker
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X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
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