Military Factory logo

Pfalz D.XII

Imperial Germany (1918)
Picture of Pfalz D.XII Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Picture of Pfalz D.XII Biplane Fighter Aircraft

Despite arriving in the last year of World War 1, the Pfalz D.XII biplane fighter managed a production total nearing 800 aircraft.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Pfalz D.XII Biplane Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 11/19/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The D.III biplane fighter ended as Pfalz Flugzeugwerke's most promising design of World War 1 (1914-1918) but even that venture could not match contemporary offerings from competitors Albatros and Fokker. The company returned to the drawing board and attempted another aircraft, this becoming the D.XII, and 800 of the type were completed before war's end in November of 1918. The D.XII matched favorably against Allied warplanes of the day but the competing design from Fokker, the D.VII, stole the limelight and saw production reach 3,300 systems. Both arrived in the war's final year.

The Pfalz D.XII was based on earlier approaches by the company which saw D.III aircraft fielded with wing elements inspired by the French SPAD S.VII (detailed elsewhere on this site). The program eventually evolved along its own lines by Pfalz which became the standalone D.XII. A prototype was made ready for March 1918 and a first-flight had that month. The design proved sound enough to warrant an order for 50 of the type and certification was granted in June. A revised rudder design greeted airframes after the 200th production example.

The D.XII became available in useful numbers for German forces during July but could not match the popularity of the Fokker D.VII. However, there were some airmen who learned the nuisances of the Pfalz aircraft and admired its particular diving capabilities. However there proved more than a fair share of detractors who thought the aircraft was rough at the controls, lacked robustness and could be dangerous to land.

The end of the war limited overall production figures and the design was studied at length by the conquering Allied powers - but few found it offering any benefit over competing designs. Poland operated two D.VII aircraft in the post-war years - becoming the only foreign user of the design.

As completed, the D.XII featured a length of 20.9 feet, a wingspan of 29.5 feet and a height of 8.9 feet. Empty weight was 1,580 lb against a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) of 1,980 lb. Power was from a Mercedes D.IIIa 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine of 160 horsepower capabilities including a maximum speed of 106 miles per hour, a ceiling up to 18,500 feet and a rate-of-climb of over 800 feet-per-minute.

Its general makeup was conventional as a biplane wing arrangement was used. The wings were given N-style struts and applicable cabling for support. The fuselage exhibited slab sides and the engine was fitted to the nose in the usual way - driving a two-bladed propeller unit. The tail incorporated a single, rounded vertical fin with low-mounted horizontal planes. The undercarriage held two main legs that were wheeled with the tail supported by a simple skid. The pilot sat under and behind the upper wing element in an open-air cockpit. Machine gun armament was fitted just ahead of his position. Construction consisted of a monocoque fuselage with plywood skinning and fabric.

Armament was 2 x 7.92mm LMG 08/15 machine guns set over the nose and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.

Any available statistics for the Pfalz D.XII Biplane Fighter Aircraft are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (106mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Pfalz D.XII's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
800
800


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
National Flag Graphic
Origin: Imperial Germany
Year: 1918
Type: Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Pfalz Flugzeugwerke GmbH - Imperial Germany
Production: 800
Global Operators:
Imperial Germany; Poland (post-war); United States (civilian market operation)
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Pfalz D.XII model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
20.83 ft


Meters
6.35 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
29.53 ft


Meters
9 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
8.86 ft


Meters
2.7 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
1,576 lb


Kilograms
715 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
1,962 lb


Kilograms
890 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Mercedes D.IIIa 6-cylinder water-cooled inline piston engine developing 160 horsepower and driving a two-bladed wooden propeller at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
106 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
170 kph


Knots
92 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
264 mi


Kilometers
425 km


Nautical Miles
229 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
18,504 ft


Meters
5,640 m


Miles
3.50 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
805 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
245 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Armament - Hardpoints (0):

2 x 7.92mm LMG 08/15 machine guns over the nose synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• D.XII - Base Series Designation