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Anatra D-Series

Russia (1916)
Picture of Anatra D-Series Reconnaissance Biplane Aircraft

The Anatra D-series biplane was one of the more forgettable local Russian biplane designs to emerge during World War 1.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Anatra D-Series Reconnaissance Biplane Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 10/25/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The Anatra D was one of the few homegrown Russian aircraft developed for the Imperial Russian Air Force and operated during World War 1 (1914-1918). The aircraft served as a twin-seat reconnaissance platform and was built in 380 examples across the major and minor variants presented. The Anatra D was the Anatra company's first original design - the concern, owned by an Italian banker in Odessa - began operations producing a local copy of French Viosin aircraft. In the case of both designs, the aircraft were not fondly remembered.

The Anatra D-series aircraft were attributed to Elysee Alfred Descamps.

The Anatra D had its first-flight on December 19th, 1915, and appeared prior to the October Revolution of 1917 that kicked the Russian Empire out of World War 1 and into internal turmoil. Its design was influenced some by the German Aviatik biplane series captured during the earlier part of the conflict and attempted to carry over some of the series' better qualities. Wood and fabric (with some steel tubing and aluminum skinning) were involved in the construction and a twin-bay biplane wing arrangement was used. The wheeled undercarriage was fixed and the engine, driving a wooden two-bladed propeller, was appropriately situated at the nose. The crew of two, in open-air cockpits, sat in tandem within the slab-sided fuselage. The tail unit was traditional - a single vertical fin with low-mounted horizontal planes.

As completed, the type exhibited a wingspan of 40.6 feet, a length of 26.5 feet and a height of 10.4 feet. Weight was 1,905lb empty and 2,566lb gross. Armament was centered on 2 x 7.7mm machine guns - one in a fixed, forward-firing mount (Vickers) operated by the pilot (and synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades) and the other on a trainable mounting for the rear gunner / observer (Lewis Gun). A modest bombload of 50 kg could also be carried aloft.

The Anatra D entered formal service during May 1916 and managed a career in the air until the early 1920s. To major types were produced during the period - the original D "Anade" model (170 examples) and the improved DS "Anasal" variant (184 examples - this name was formed from "Anatra Salmson"). The original Gnome Monosoupape rotary engines of 100 horsepower of the original aircraft proved highly unreliable and the design exhibited inherent structural weaknesses with overall shoddy construction. The DS model - first flown on July 16th, 1916) attempted to improve upon some of these deficient qualities by introducing a Salmson Canton-Unne water-cooled radial piston engine of 150 horsepower. While this helped to improve performance qualities some, it did little to endear the design to Russian airmen - who were more or less forced to fly the deathtrap under combat conditions.

The base aircraft design (DS model) could manage a maximum speed of 80 miles per hour up to a ceiling of 14,110 feet out to a range of 250 miles but little else. Reliability issues persisted and aircraft were known to inexplicably crash or break up in midair - leaving the Anatra aircraft to become one of the more forgettable Russian Empire aircraft ventures of World War 1. It continued for some time longer in service under the Soviet Air Force banner, at least until 1923. Other global operators became the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Czechoslovakia (postwar use of 23 aircraft), Hungary and Poland (postwar use of five aircraft).

The DDS was a limited-number variant fitted with the Salmson 9U radial piston engine of 160 horsepower which further increased performance figures (up to 90mph maximum speed). At least one Anatra "Anadis" was completed as a promising single-seat fighter in 1916 but not furthered into a serial production form.

The type was also in combat service during the Polish-Soviet War of 1919-1920.

Any available statistics for the Anatra D-Series Reconnaissance Biplane Aircraft are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (82mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Anatra D (Anade)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
380
380


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
National Flag Graphic
Origin: Russia
Year: 1916
Type: Reconnaissance Biplane Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Anatra - Russian Empire
Production: 380
Global Operators:
Austria-Hungary; Czechoslovakia; Hungary; Poland; Russia; Soviet Union
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Anatra D (Anade) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
2


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
25.26 ft


Meters
7.7 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
37.73 ft


Meters
11.5 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
9.51 ft


Meters
2.9 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
1,135 lb


Kilograms
515 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
1,907 lb


Kilograms
865 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Gnome Monosoupape engine developing 100 horsepower and driving two-bladed wooden propeller in nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
82 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
132 kph


Knots
71 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
217 mi


Kilometers
350 km


Nautical Miles
189 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
13,123 ft


Meters
4,000 m


Miles
2.49 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
470 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
143 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Armament - Hardpoints (4):

STANDARD:
1 x 0.303 Vickers machine gun in rear cockpit.

OPTIONAL:
Up to 65lb of conventional drop stores.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Anatra D "Anade" - Original production model with Gnome Monosoupape engine of 100 horsepower; 170 examples.
• Anatra DS "Anasal" - Improved model with Salmson 9U radial engine of 150 horsepower; 184 examples.
• Anatra DDS - Limited production model with Salmson 160 horsepower engine and improved performance.
• Anatra "Anadis" - One-off fighter prototype development